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Guide to powder post beetles & old house borers in buildings.
This article provides powder post beetle & old house borer insect & rot damage photographs, inspection advice, and lists additional articles that discuss the inspection, detection, prevention, and repair of structural damage from insects (termites, carpenter ants, carpenter bees, powder post beetles, and other wood destroying insects), indoor mold, rot and building leaks or water entry.
Our page top photo shows our client holding a screwdriver that penetrated a powder-post-beetle-damaged beam fully to the hilt of the tool - indicating severe structural damage to a beam damaged by powder post beetles.
Powder Post Beetles - Old House Borer Damage Photographs
In our powder post beetle photos above, while there was significant beam damage, the infestation did not appear active.
Powder post beetle damaged wood will show multiple tiny holes, about 1/8" in diameter, leaving the outermost surface of the wood otherwise intact. Probing you will find powdery sawdust and damaged wood just below this skin. The older the powder post beetle (or old house borer beetle) damage is, the deeper into the wood the damage will extend.
For this reason, strategic probing is important to assess the depth of damage to the wood and thus to the wood structure. When powder post beetles are active you may see light dusting of fine wood powde around some of these holes as well as on surfaces below.
We look for the presence of fine wood powder around the insect exit holes or on the ground below the damaged infected member as indications of recent insect activity. Below left we are probing to determine the depth of insect damage into the beam; at below right is powder post beetle damage in a hand hewn beam. With the absence of fresh fine sawdust powde around the exit holes in these beams one might infer that the insects were not active at the time of inspection.
Below are two more photographs of old house borer or powder post beetle damage in a floor support beam. We probe the structural member to find the depth of insect damage as a step in deciding if structural repair, reinforcement, or replacement are needed.
Treatments for Powder Post Beetles & Old House Borers
Powder post beetle damage is typically treated with a topical insecticide spray.
Watch out: it's often the case that this insect pest can appear dormant for a very long time, years, but activity may renew when conditions such as moisture level or temperature change.
Some pest control operators (PCOs) also spray paint the wood surfaces in order to make it easier to spot a renewal of insect activity in the future.
Using Heat or Microwaves to Kill Off Powder Post Beetles or Other Wood Boring Insects
An anonymous reader posted a claim that powder post beetles can be treated by microwave - the comment was deleted as it was basically an advertisement.
However experiments with microwave treatments for powder post beetles have indeed been conducted: wood is heated to 50C (or higher) for 30 minutes.
Watch out: the effectiveness of this treatment varies depending on wood species, moisture content, and other variables, and it may not be cost feasible for some structures or where invasion is extensive. The research is focused on lab and production line treatment of wood, not in-situ treatment in buildings. Excerpting from Fleming et als
Wood temperatures greater than 62°C are lethal to pinewood nematodes and
cerambycid larvae infesting red pine in a chamber in which the wood samples remain
stationary. Our preliminary findings also suggest, however, that nematodes or larvae in
lumber in which the mw field is continuously moving, either by rotation or on a conveyor
belt, die at lower wood temperatures than in a batch system without movement. We
recommend that additional experiments with non-stationary, commercial equipment be
conducted to investigate this phenomenon further. Additional assessment of the effects
of conventionally heated vs non-heated mw chambers on lethal mw doses would also be
helpful for the commercialization and regulatory process.
We can conclude from our experiments that commercial mw treatment (2.45
GHz) of 1-inch thick red pine lumber infested with cerambycids or pinewood nematodes
is a feasible alternative to conventional heat treatment or methyl bromide fumigation. - Fleming (2005)
References for Control of Powder Post Beetles / Wood Borers: treatment methods including microwave
Bartell, Steven M., and Shyam K. Nair. "Establishment risks for invasive species." Risk Analysis 24, no. 4 (2004): 833-845.
Fleming, Mary R., John J. Janowiak, Jeffrey D. Kimmel John M. Halbrendt, Leah S. Bauer Deborah L. Miller, and Kelli Hoover. "Efficacy of commercial microwave equipment for eradication of pine wood nematodes and cerambycid larvae infesting red pine." Forest 10006 (2005).
Fleming, Mary R., John J. Janowiak, John M. Halbrendt, Leah S. Bauer, Deborah L. Miller, and Kelli Hoover. "Feasibility of eradicating cerambycid larvae and pinewood nematodes infesting lumber with commercial 2.45 GHz microwave equipment." Forest Products Journal 55, no. 12 (2005): 227-232.
Quarles, William. "Thermal pest eradication in structures." IPM Practitioner 28, no. 5/6 (2006): 1-8.
How to assess the extent of structural damage from powder post beetles
Details about when, where, how & why to probe wood structural and non-strucural components on buildings are founda
at STRUCTURAL DAMAGE PROBING.
Assessing the extent of structural damage to wood framing members in a conventional building inspection involves the following phases and procedures:
Examples of probing powder post beetle infested wood for structural damage
Clearly the ground-off ice pick wood probe (far left) is finding less-severe damage than the "to the hilt" stab of my dad's screwdriver demonstrated by our client (close left).
Watch out: while we advise against unwarranted cosmetic damage at a building interior, strategic probing of wood sills, rim joists, or floor structures (or other wood members) can disclose severe structural damage that was otherwise not evident. At below left, even our pen was able to easily puncture this termite-damaged joist that had been "cosmetically-repaired" using wood putty
Old House Borer Beetle risk from firewood?
Reader question: old house borers, adult beetles & larvae found in firewood stored in garage
We recently discovered the emergence of hundreds of, what looks like, Old House Borers from firewood that was stacked in our garage.
We've taken the firewood out of the garage now (where we could hear the larvae feeding) but are wondering if there's a possibility that they've infected the house as we have seen dozens crawling around the garage and have found a couple of adult/baby ones in other rooms of the house.
I've attached a picture of the beetle. Any feedback would be very greatly appreciated. - D.D. 6/4/2014
Indeed the beetle in your photo looks like an adult old house borer beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) -
Removing the infected firewood was a smart move. I would not be too nervous about seeing a few beetles or larvae that needed to be cleaned up on a garage floor.
IF the firewood were stored for many months against wood framing, indeed that framing could become infected too - you'd expect to see the small borer openings such as those we show in the article above.
If you see such infection (which is unlikely given the history you cite) send me some photos and I can comment further and of course a local pest control operator can apply a topical pesticide.
At above left I include a close-up photo of old house borer beetle exit holes - these are typically around 1/16"+ in diameter.
If the home has an accessible basement or crawl area that's the place to start inspecting with care.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
(May 21, 2011) From Little ol me said:
they love the top plate as well as the bottom plate of a wall. They took out well over 60 feet of each before I found them. I removed all sheetrock in the house, replaced what wood was necessary and treated the wood with Shell Guard RTU made by perma chenk. It was a huge job, and it seemed to last forever. Hope it works.
Thanks for your comment about where powder post beetle damage is most likely to be found in homes - it will help other readers.
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We are dedicated to making our information as accurate, complete, useful, and unbiased as possible: we very much welcome critique, questions, or content suggestions for our web articles.
(Nov 3, 2012) mary said:
I purchased a house and knew about termites and there were none, but the main support beam is riddled with those little holes and the beam is soft. How do I go about relacing the beam without taking my house apart. That section of my house ( which is reasonably small ) is sinking. The house will actually shake if you come down the stairs too quick. Any suggestions ?
Typically the contractor adds temporary support under sound sections of the structure, then removes and replaces the bad beam. If a bad center girder supports a load bearing partition above, extra support is likely to be needed, including on the floor above.
Rather than risk a dangerous floor collapse you should ask advice from an expert, probably a structural engineer.
(Feb 8, 2014) Can powder lost beetles be treated in the winter with a water based liquid agent used for killing them. said:
Can powder post beetles be treated in the winter(temp's in the teens) with a water based agent used for treating them
I don't know for sure about your situation, but here are some pointers: the agent, hopefully one formulated specifically for these insects, can probably be applied any time, but unless the pesticide has a residual effect that lasts until warm weather it may be ineffective if applied when the insects are inactive.
(Mar 14, 2014) Pat said:
I purchase a house and found out that it has powder post beetle. I had two soft spots one in the kitchen and bathroom. Both floors have been replaced and the girdle.I would like to know whether or not the floor or house will collapse after having this replacement and having the house treated for powder puff beetle.
Pat you are asking a reasonable question but not one that any building professional with an ounce of sense would attempt to answer when she or he has not a shred of information about the condition of the building. You may need an onsite expert inspection to address the question of whether or not the scope of repair was adequate as well as its execution.
Question: suspect powder post beetle
(July 19, 2014) Anonymous said:
I am renovating my bathroom; am down to studs and sub-floor. There is one stud at the right rear corner of the tub I suspect is powderpost beetle damaged. Powdery, pieces flake off, sounds soft. There are no other studs that appear to be damaged - they all sound solid. Is it possible this is old damage? Looking from the basement there appears to be no signs. I was going to place a new stud next to this one to be used for tub and wall install. What to do, need to move on quickly. Thanks, Rob in Timonim, MD
Yes it may be old damage Tim, but keep in mind that powder post beetles can be hard to exterminate and that their activity can be dormant for some time. Moisture and temperature variations as well as time of year can cause a still-active infestation to appear dormant. In my experience key in deciding if the fellows are active in the wood is the presence of fresh light-coloured very fine sawdust around their exit holes in the wood. It's time to do some judicious probing to decide if you want to replace the stud. If it were my project I'd replace the stud now while it's easy, and I'd look into causes and prevention.
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The Forensic Building Pathology division provides evidence in report form to government agencies, consultancy firms, lawyers and others, when truly independent analysis based on comprehensive testing is required. Incodo arguably has the largest, most up-to-date and comprehensive range of building investigation equipment available and has developed unique methodologies particularly in the field of non-destructive testing for leaking structures.
Incodo Insitu Timber Assessment:
The in-situ Timber Assessment division provides a service whereby technicians use state-of-the-art timber resistance drill technology to profile variations in timber density associated with timber decay.
The work is done on site and the results are instant.
This technology is objective and evidential in nature and provides assessment as to whether wood is significantly decayed, suspect or suitable for retention. The technology has particular application in locating and assessing hidden decay.
 Thomas Tannert, Andreas Muller, Mareike Vogel, "Applications and limitations of NDT: a timber bridge case study", NDTCE’09, Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering
Nantes, France, June 30th – July 3rd, 2009, web search 8/3/2012, original source: http://www.ndt.net/article/ndtce2009/papers/144.pdf [copy on file as Tannert_Timber_Test_144.pdf]
Abstract The applications and limitations of different non-destructive and semi-destructive
techniques to evaluate the structural integrity of timber members in a pedestrian bridge are
presented as a case study. Sophisticated assessment tools are required to detect hidden
damages in timber structures: for example stress-wave techniques are used to evaluate the
modulus of elasticity of bending members and resistance to drilling is used to gain knowledge
of areas of changed density due to insect or moisture induced damages. Reliably relating the
gathered data to the structural integrity of the structure is a complex issue. Bending members
and connection details of a decommissioned timber bridge were evaluated using non
destructive assessment tools. Eventually these parts were tested destructively to assess their
remaining modulus of elasticity and load bearing capacity. The need for improvements in the
current practice is highlighted by comparing the results from the non-destructive, semidestructive
and destructive tests.
 Bohumil Kasal, Thomas Tannert, "RILEM Technical Committee on In Situ Assessment of Structural Timber", Bohumil Kasal et al., 2010, Advanced Materials Research, 133-134, 271, Abstract: Timber is an intriguing structural material and the only one that is truly renewable. Being biodegradable, hygroscopic and non-isotropic, it presents special challenges when assessing its integrity in structures. The presented paper outlines the major issues related to in-situ evaluation of structural timber and summarizes the work of the RILEM Technical Committee 215-AST “In-situ assessment of structural timber”. The committee was established in 2005 to bring together leading scientists and practitioners in the field of evaluation of timber in existing structures. Timber structures have been investigated for decades using numerous techniques that have been either developed specifically for the material or were transferred from other fields of investigation. A state-of-the-art report describing existing and emerging technologies and methods was prepared by the RILEM committee. The report describes the principles, the applications and the limitations of major evaluation techniques for in-situ assessment of timber. A brief discussion of codes standards and future research needs shows that much needs to be done in this area. As a present activity, harmonized test procedure recommendations are being prepared that will provide the engineering community with valuable guidance when evaluating timber structures.
 Bohumil Kasal & Thomas Tannert (Editors), In Situ Assessment of Structural Timber, ISBN 978-94-007-0559-3, Rilem 2010
 Bohumil Kasal, Tension Micro Specimens,
In Situ Assessment of Structural Timber
RILEM State of the Art Reports, 2011, Volume 7, 75-80, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-0560-9_8, [excepts chapter 7 on file: Tension Micro-Specimens, as Kasal_Testing.pdf]
Abstract The principle of this method is extracting triangular specimens (about 5 mm equal-sides triangle) along the length of the member. Small-kerf circular saw with a fixture attached to the surface of the member is used to extract the specimens. Specimens are then glued to the test blocks and tested in tension. The method gives direct values of tensile modulus of elasticity and strength for clear wood. The values are local and pertain to the tested area and surface.
[From chapter 7.1 Background: This method was developed by Kasal and is based on direct measurement of tension properties along fibers. Bending strength evaluation is an important aspect of in situ evaluation of timber members as it is one of the predominant modes of loading, but estimates of the bending properties in situ can present a challenge. With information on the member's tensile properties, bending strength estimates can be made; tensile strength has been related to bending strength and is considered to be approximately equal. Tensile properties have a poor correlation with compression properties therefore tensile strength can not be estimated using information attained with the core drilling technique. Specimens can however be extracted to evaluate the tensile properties of in situ members with the technique described in the following sections....']
[Also] Kasal B, Anthony R: Advances in in-situ evaluation of timber structures. Progress in Structural Eng and Materials. 6(2):94-103, 2004.
 Thomas Tannert, Andreas Müller, Mareike Vogel, "in-situ assessment, hot spots, moisture content, block-laminated timber", ICTB 2010, Bern University of Applied Sciences. ISBN 978 8251 926805, in-situ assessment, hot spots, moisture content, block laminated timber,
Abstract: Timber has been a structural material for bridges for centuries and numerous examples throughout the world demonstrate its durability. But timber is biodegradable and hygroscopic and regular inspections are recommended to determine the condition of the structure. This paper reports on the structural health monitoring of timber bridges in general and the long term moisture measurement inside block-laminated timber elements of several traffic bridges in specific. Presently there is no reported scientific information available on the long-term moisture behaviour and the resulting moisture induced stresses and dimensional changes of block-laminated timber elements. The paper reports on the monitoring of the moisture content of a block-laminated timber bridge.
[References 7-13 below are cited from this document]
 Wilkinson K, Thambiratnam D, Ferreira L. Non Destructive Testing of Timber Bridge Girders. In Proceedings Int. Conf. on Structural Condition Assessment, Monitoring and Improvement, Perth, Australia, 2005.
 Kasal B, Anthony R: Advances in in-situ evaluation of timber structures. Progress in Structural Eng and Materials. 6(2):94-103, 2004.
 Gerold M. Bloc-Glued Laminated decks for timber bridges. Structural engineering international, 12(3): 214–217, 2002.
 Graham T. Overview of non-destructive evaluation technologies. In Proceedings of the Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Bridges and Highways, Ed by S. Chose, 1995.
 Duwadi SR, Ritter MA. An Overview of the Wood in Transportation Program in the United States, In Proceedings 5th World Conference on Timber Engineering, Montreux, Switzerland, 1998.
 Rinn F, Schweingruber FH, Schär E. Resistograph and X-Ray Density Charts of Wood. Comparative Evaluation of Drill resistance Profiles and X-Ray Density Charts of Different Wood Species. Holzforschung 50:303-311, 1996.
 Brashaw B, Vatalaro RJ, Wacker JP and RJ Ross. Condition Assessment of Timber Bridges: 1. Evaluation of a Micro-Drilling Tool. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-159. Forest Products Laboratory Madison, WI. 2005.
Simpson W. Drying and Control of Moisture Content and Dimensional Changes. Chapter 12, Wood handbook - wood as an engineering material. General Technical Report FPL–GTR– 113. Forest Products Laboratory, WI, 1999.
 "Fractometer Print Manual", IML
Instrumenta Mechanik Labor System GmbH
Großer Stadtacker 2
69168 Wiesloch • Germany, 02-2008, web search 8/4/12, original source: http://www.imlusa.com/Fractometer_Print_eng_web_A4.pdf [Copy on file as Fractometer_Print_eng.pdf]
 Bob Monk, "Evaluation of Decay Detection Equipment in Standing Trees", USDA Forest Service, web search 8/4/12, original source http://www.fs.fed.us/eng/techdev/IM/tree_decay/tree_decay_detect_equip.shtml [Copy on file as Monk_Tree_Deday_Detection.pdf] Introduction - quoting: A project was proposed to test and compare several of the devices that are able, to some
degree, to detect decay in trees. Decay in trees is directly related to the hazards that they
present. However, detection of decay does not necessarily mean that a tree is hazardous. The
identified devices can be used to determine what decay is present. It is still necessary to use
professional experience and sound judgment to decide if a tree actually poses a hazard.
General guides or "rules of thumb" can also be used, such as Guidance notes from the
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and the USDA Forest Service, 1996 that suggests
a 25 mm ring of sound wood is required for every 150 mm of stem diameter at any point on
the stem. If the proportion of decayed wood to sound wood exceeds this level then action may
need to be taken to minimize the hazard posed by the tree (Lawday and Hodges, 2000). [Additional selected citations from this article are below]
[16a] Larsson, B.; Bengtsson, B.; and Gustafsson, M. 2004. Nondestructive Detection of Decay in
Living Trees. Tree Physiology. 24: 853-858
[16b] Moore, W. 1999. The Combined Use of the Resistograph and the Shigometer for the Accurate
Mapping and Diagnosis of the Internal Condition of woody Support Organs of Trees.
Arboriculture Journal. 23: 273-287
[16c] Nicolotti, G.; Socco, L.V.; Martinis, R.; Godio, A.; and Sambuelli, L. 2003. Application and
Comparison of Three Tomographic Techniques for Detection of Decay in Trees. Journal of
Arboriculture. 29(2): 66-77
[16d] Seavey, R.; and Larson, T. 2002. Inspection of Timber Bridges. Minnesota Department of
Transportation Technical Report MN/RC-2002-34. St. Paul, MN. 43 p.
[16e] Wang, X.; Divos, F.; Pilon, C.; Brashaw, B.K.; Ross, R.J.; and Pellerin, R.F. 2004. Assessment
of Decay in Standing Timber Using Stress Wave Timing Nondestructive Evaluation Tools: A
Guide for Use and Interpretation. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-147. Madison, WI: U.S.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 11 p.
 Pilodyn Wood Tester, USA / Canadian Source: Intech-NDE, 6211 Roper Road
T6B 3G6, Tel: 1 888-576-7756 or Intech-NDE, 140 - 8851 Beckwith Road
Richmond, B.C., Tel: 1 800-677-8884, or USA Tel: 800-297-3208, Website: http://www.intechnde.com, web search 8/4/12, original source: http://www.corvib.com/pilodyn/ Quoting:
Pilodyn is an easy-to-use wood testing instrument which is suitable for trees, railway ties and utility poles. The Pilodyn wood tester (Hylec Controls) is described by and currently available in North America from InTech/NDE U.S. Tel: 905-716-5604 / 800-297-3208, or Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
 Pilodyn Wood Tester, Hylec Controls, available in Australia from Ferret http://www.ferret.com.au/n/Pilodyn-wood-density-meter-from-Hylec-n852069 - Quoting: Pilodyn, available from Hylec Controls , was developed to determine the density and strength of dead and living wood. Invisible soft rot can be detected rapidly and objectively in an easy non-destructiveway and the reduction in strength associated with it can be determined. This can be of vital importance in the case of wooden playground structures,climbing frames and telephone masts.
With PILODYN 6J Forestversion the density of the wood is determined on living trees. The damage is so little that the tree suffers no harm and the testing method is regarded as non-destructive.
Testing procedure: The testing procedure is very simple: The tester is loaded with the ramrod and then pressed firmly onto the tet surface. The impact pin is shot into the wood by pressing the trigger cover. The depth of penetrationcan be read straightaway in mm on the scale mounted on the tester.
Typical applications of the Pilodon:
Testing the stability of wooden structures on playgrounds, detection of soft rot
Testing the strength on wooden telephone masts, detection of soft rot
When thinning out: sorting out trees with undesirable density of the wood
Early detection of diseases: periodic measurement detects unnatural changes in the wood density
Comparison of the location-dependent density to determine the optimal location for the respective tree species
Establishing productivity with respect to density for the same tree species and similar location properties for culture purposes
Testing and sorting of cut wood into timber classes
 Brashaw, Brian K.; Vatalaro, Robert J.; Wacker, James P.; Ross, Robert J. 2005. "Condition Assessment of Timber Bridges: 1. Evaluation of a Micro-Drilling Resistance Tool" Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-159. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. 8 p., web search 8/5/2012, original source: http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fpl_gtr159.pdf [copy on file as Micro_Drill_Study_USDA_fpl_gtr159.pdf] This publication is also available from the U.S. FPL at www.fpl.fs.fed.us
Abstract: The research presented in this report was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of a commercially available micro-drilling resistance device, the IML RESI F300-S (Instrument Mechanic Labor, Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia), in locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. The device records drilling resistance as a function of drilling depth, which allows the operator to assess the location of deterioration in the member cross section. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were used as test specimens in this study. The IML RESI F300-S was first used to assess decay in the timber bridge specimens. The specimens were then sawn along their length into slabs to expose their interior condition. The interior faces of these slabs were inspected visually and with a stress-wave probe to confirm if deterioration was present. On the basis of these tests, we conclude that this micro-drilling device accurately determines if deterioration is present at the point at which the test is performed.
Keywords: timber, bridges, inspection, drilling resistance, nondestructive evaluation
Excerpt from the study's conclusions: Based on our tests, we offer the following comments about the accuracy of using the IML RESI F300-S for locating deterioration in bridge timbers:
1. The tool is accurate at determining the presence of decay in timber bridge specimens. However, these data are limited to the drilling location.
2. The tool can precisely locate an internal defect (decay pocket, check, or split) within the member’s cross section. This can be advantageous for condition assessment and load rating purposes.
3. Decay indices were developed for Douglas-fir timbers
as follows: sound, >25% resistance; moderate decay, 10–25%; and advanced or severe decay, 0–10%.
One drawback is that multiple, time-consuming drilling would be required to map the area and extent of the decay in the other plane. Another possible drawback is the potential to spread the decay to sound areas within a timber or to sound timbers by multiple use of a contaminated drill bit. Routine cleaning of drill bits, or replacement with a new one, would greatly reduce this potential drawback.
It is crucial to use this or any nondestructive testing tool or device as part of a comprehensive condition assessment. Such an assessment should incorporate an in-depth visual inspection, knowledge of prior use of the structure, and a working knowledge of fundamental engineering properties of structural wood products. This technique, when used in concert with visual and ultrasound techniques, would provide a very accurate description of the condition of timbers.
 Brashaw, B.K.; Vatalaro, R.J.; Erickson, J.R.; Forsman, J.W.; Ross, R.J. 2004. Final Report: A Study of Technologies to Locate Decayed Timber Bridge Members. Project No. 187-6456, NRRI/TR-2004-06. Duluth, MN: UM-Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute.
 Brashaw, B.K.; Vatalaro, R.J.; Ross, R.J.; Wacker, J.P. 2005. Condition Assessment of Timber Bridges:
2. Evaluation of Several Commercially Available Stress Wave/Ultrasonic Tools. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-160. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
 Troltech GMBH & Co. KG. Deutchland, Grebbener Str. 7, D-52525 Heinsberg, Deutchland, produces the Trotec T2000, Tel: 02452 962-450, International: +49 2452 962-450, Email: email@example.com, Website: http://www.trotec.de/, Web page for the Troltec T2000: http://www.trotec.de/en/product-catalog/measuring-instruments/multi-function/t2000/
 Paul Probett, Incodo, Ltd., "Thermal Imaging and Building Surveying / Inspection" 2008, Incodo Ltd, 4/511 Cameron Rd, Tauranga NZ, article adapted by InspectAPedia with permission, August 2012. Contact the authors by Email: Paul Probett, firstname.lastname@example.org , Tel: 027 28 000 36 (Mobile) Website: http://incodo.co.nz/ [Copy of this article on file as Thermal Imaging NDT Presentation 2008.ppt ]
Steve Bliss's Building Advisor at buildingadvisor.com helps homeowners & contractors plan & complete successful building & remodeling projects: buying land, site work, building design, cost estimating, materials & components, & project management through complete construction. Email: email@example.com
Steven Bliss served as editorial director and co-publisher of The Journal of Light Construction for 16 years and previously as building technology editor for Progressive Builder and Solar Age magazines. He worked in the building trades as a carpenter and design/build contractor for more than ten years and holds a masters degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Excerpts from his recent book, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, Wiley (November 18, 2005) ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, appear throughout this website, with permission and courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Best Practices Guide is available from the publisher, J. Wiley & Sons, and also at Amazon.com
APA - The Engineered Wood Association, 7011 So. 19th St., PO Box 11700, Tacoma WA 98411-0700, Tel: 253-565-7265. APA provides an HDO/MDO Plywood Product Guide that offers details about these products., provides an HDO/MDO Plywood Product Guide that offers details about these products. Product support help desk: 253-620-7400. Email the APA at firstname.lastname@example.org. Web search 09/13/2010, original source: http://www.pacificwoodlaminates.com/img/PDFs/PlywoodGuide.pdf
Design of Wood Structures - ASD, Donald E. Breyer, Kenneth Fridley, Kelly Cobeen, David Pollock, McGraw Hill, 2003, ISBN-10: 0071379320, ISBN-13: 978-0071379328
This book is an update of a long-established text dating from at least 1988 (DJF); Quoting: This book is gives a good grasp of seismic design for wood structures. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations.THE CLASSIC TEXT ON WOOD DESIGN UPDATED TO INCLUDE THE LATEST CODES AND DATA. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design.
Diagnosing & Repairing House Structure Problems, Edgar O. Seaquist, McGraw Hill, 1980 ISBN 0-07-056013-7 (obsolete, incomplete, missing most diagnosis steps, but very good reading; out of print but used copies are available at Amazon.com, and reprints are available from some inspection tool suppliers). Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
Defects and Deterioration in Buildings: A Practical Guide to the Science and Technology of Material Failure, Barry Richardson, Spon Press; 2d Ed (2001), ISBN-10: 041925210X, ISBN-13: 978-0419252108. Quoting: A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level.
Desert Termites, Thomas W. Fuchs, Extension Entomologist, Darrell N. Ueckert, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, and Bastiaan M. Drees,
Extension Entomologist, Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Texas A&M University System, web search 09/13/2010, original source: http://insects.tamu.edu/extension/bulletins/uc/uc-016.html
Termites - Greenhouse Gases, U.S. EPA, Environmental Protection Agency. Web search 09/11/2010, original source: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch14/final/c14s02.pdf Quoting an interesting passage from this brief document: Termites inhabit many different ecological regions, but they are concentrated primarily in
tropical grasslands and forests. Symbiotic micro-organisms in the digestive tracts of termites
(flagellate protozoa in lower termites and bacteria in higher termites) produce methane (CH4).
Estimates of the contribution to the global budget of CH4 from termites vary widely, from negligible
up to 15 percent.
Truly Nolen Pest Control, Tel: 866-221-4765, is a national franchise of pest control operators in the U.S. Quoting from the company's website: Truly Nolen [has] over 80 offices located in Arizona, California, Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas and Utah. The company services more than 150,000 customers and employs about 1,100 partners, with almost 50 percent service technicians. Domestic franchises are offered throughout the United States. International franchises are also established in over 30 countries.
U.S. EPA. Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic
Substances. 1997. Re registration eligibility decision:
Diflubenzuron. Pp. 17, 46. www.epa.gov/
U.S. EPA. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and
Toxic Substances. 1994. Pesticide fact sheet:
Hexaflumuron. Washington, D.C.
U.S. EPA. Office of Pesticide Programs. 2003.
Pesticide ecotoxicity database. Unpublished database.
U.S. EPA. Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic
Substances. 1998. Re registration eligibility
decision: Hydramethylnon. Pp. 16-18, 43.
U.S. EPA. Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Undated. New chemical New chemical fact sheet:
Noviflumuron. Washington, D.C.
"Protecting Your Home from Subterranean Termite Damage", Journal of Pesticide Reform, Fall 2004, V 24 No. 3, - 6-7, Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides/NCAP, POB 1393, Eugene OR, 97440 541-344-5044 www.pesticide.org: Web search 09/11/2010: http://www.hipspro.com/pubs/subterraneantermites.pdf This document discusses alternatives for termite protection including reducing the attractiveness of the structure to termites (get wood away from the building, fix leaks), use of 16-grit sand (diameter 0.06 - 0.1 in) as a termite barrier 18" wide x 3" deep in crawl areas, or stainless steel mesh for the same purpose under foundations and slabs, boric acid, Diflubenzuron (insect growth regulator, risk genetic damage, EPA classed as carcinogen), Hexaflumuron (insect growth regulator, EPA didn't ID health concerns, waived some testing, partly because of anticipated very low risk of human exposure), Hydramethylnon (stomach toxicant, EPA: Carcinogen, highly toxic to fish), Noviflumuron (chemically similar to hexaflumuron), can cause anemia, EPA didn't ID other health hazards, some testing requirements waived, moderately toxic to fish).
Basement water entry: what the basement waterproofing companies don't tell you? Water entry prevention and repair suggestions. -- in process
Termite Damage in Buildings: causes, detection, prevention for hard-to-inspect properties - [in process], this article explains how visual clues both outside and inside a building can predict the most-likely points
of insect attack (or leaks, water entry, mold, rot). That tells the inspector or home owner where to look first for trouble as well as how to avoid
structural damage from insects, rot, mold, or water.
Termite Damage Case Study#1 - exterior clues predicted insect damage; interior access was limited but certain clear clues led right to the damage
as well as an attempted cover-up of termite damage below a "repaired" wooden floor. The real evidence was in the driveway. [in process]
Termite Damage Case Study#2 - very limited visual access inside a building made this inspection for structural damage tough. Outside
conditions suggested a risk of water entry and insect attack. Inside the house had mysteriously sloping floors - sloping in every direction.
There were few indications of ongoing building movement to explain the sloping. Perseverance led to finding severe termite damage at the
building sills. [in process]
Termites, Wikipedia web search 09/11/2010, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Termite provided some information about termite size.
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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