Cause, Effect, & Dealing with Log Shrinkage in Solid or Milled Log Homes
- SHRINKAGE & HEIGHT CHANGES, LOG WALL - CONTENTS: Guide to Diagnosing & Repairing Leaks & Other Problems on Modern Kit Log Homes
- Guide to Identifying, Diagnosing & Repairing Older & Antique Log Homes
- Log caulk, spline, gasket, and coating product guide for log houses
- Log checking, cracking, shrinkage, & Leaks in log houses and log siding
- Window & Door Installation Details for Log Homes can prevent later leaks & Damage
- POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about shrinkage in log home walls, logs, and other structural components
This article explains the cause, effect, and cure for shrinkage in log homes: log home log shrinkage, cracks, checking: how to determine which log cracks are harmless, which cause leaks into the structure (or rot or insect damage), and how to properly find and seal cracks or other problems caused by log or beam shrinkage.
Shrinkage in solid logs used to construct both antique and modern log houses produces some special challenges to the builders of those homes. Shrinkage produces not only checking (large cracks that are normal and are not necessarily a problem) but also an actual reduction in log diameter which can, in extreme cases, mean that a wall may shrink in height by an inch or more after construction. A tall log wall like the one in our page to photo may shrink two inches over its height during the first year or year and a half after the building has been closed-in and heat turned on.
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An Owner-Builder's Guide to Shrinkage & Shrinkage Cracks In Log Home Walls
Log homes will shrink considerably in wall height as the logs dry during the first one or two years after construction.
This is so even in factory cut "dry" logs which may have absorbed moisture in transit or on site, and it is even more true if the logs used in construction were "air dried" or were used while still "green".
The more moisture that was present in logs at the time of construction of a log home, the greater the amount of shrinkage that will occur in overall wall height, and the larger and more extensive will be the checking cracks that occur in log walls.
[Photo courtesy Arlene Puentes. Click to enlarge any image]
Even factory-milled kiln-dried logs may vary in moisture, or they may pick up moisture during transport and storage at the building site. Construction details such as the means of fastening each log course in place and the framing and construction of windows and doors need to take into account this natural movement and log shrinkage that occurs especially over the first 18 months after construction of a new log home.
This series of articles provides information on the inspection and diagnosis of damage to new and older log homes and includes description of log house and log siding insulation values and alternatives, and also a description of the characteristics of slab-sided log homes as well as all other types of log home construction. We include illustrations of log structures from several very different areas and climates in both the United States and Norway. Our page top photo shows a modern kit log home constructed in New York State.
For modern kit and factory-sourced log structures we include details of common construction and building defects that cause water and air leaks and ultimately rot damage and we point to key problem areas that need to be inspected carefully when buying or maintaining a log home.
Log Checking or Splitting - Are Log or Beam Splits A Structural Concern?
Log checking, long horizontal splits in the log surfaces, will appear on both inside and outside surfaces of log walls and may vary considerably in width (hairline to 1/2") and length (a few inches to several feet).
Checks in logs (or other large timbers) are rarely a structural concern, but they may become a leak or rot problem.
Checks are only a cosmetic concern unless they are taking in water and therefore risking leaks into the building interior or causing rot or inviting insect damage, as we discuss below
See Log Checking or Splitting for additional details about splits and checks in log buildings.
Interior Condensation and Moisture During Log Home Curing
Considerable moisture may be released during the first year or two after construction of a log home, after the home is totally enclosed and central heating / air conditioning have been installed.
Our photo (left) shows frozen condensation on a log cabin window overlooking Lake Superior (Two Harbors, MN).
Log moisture content is easy to measure using any of several types of moisture meter. Log moisture measurements can help determine whether the condensation seen in a log home is coming from the logs as they cure, from leaks, or from some other moisture source.
We discuss log moisture content, green logs, air dried and kiln dried logs, and avoiding log splitting problems on log houses at Log Checking or Splitting. These same factors affect the level of indoor condensation in a building in the first year or two after construction has been completed and the building is fully enclosed.
Log Wall Height Changes During Log Curing
Log walls can shrink up to several inches in overall height during curing, depending on how much moisture was in the logs when the home was constructed. There may also be some seasonal changes in the height of a log wall as ambient moisture varies and as heating or air conditioning are used in the home.
Modern log homes use construction details and log fasteners designed to permit this log shrinkage movement without damage to other rigid building components like windows, doors, plumbing, electrical wiring, and fixtures.
Continue reading at SLAB SIDING LOG HOMES or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about log home wall shrinkage & height changes due to log shrinkage
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Questions & answers or comments about shrinkage in log home walls, logs, and other structural components
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Technical Reviewers & References
Publisher's Google+ Page by Daniel Friedman
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- Thanks to Arlene Puentes for the photograph of a checked log in a log home exterior. Arlene Puentes, a licensed home inspector, educator, and building failures researcher in Kingston, NY. Photographs © Arlene Puentes 2006 All Rights Reserved. Text © Daniel Friedman Arlene Puentes 2008 All Rights Reserved.
- "The Logless Log Home," Jim Robbins, New York Times, 05/05/2010 Home section, p. D1 & D6.
- "Shop Talk," Martin Mintz, AIA, Builder Magazine, April 1986, detailed solutions for log shrinkage movement by using a "T" jamb at windows and doors. A January 1986 Builder Magazine article shows window installation details in 8" thick log walls.
- "Caulking, Chinking, Insulators, Sealants - which System works Best," Log Home and Alternative Housing Builder, Nov-Dec 1983.
- Lincoln Log Homes Marketing, Inc., 6000 Lumber Lane, Kannapolis NC 28081 704-932-6151
- Insulating Characteristics of log homes were neatly summarized by Roger Rawlings in "Log Homes in a New Light," Rodale's New Shelter, April 1983, p. 28
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
- Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, by Steven Bliss. John Wiley & Sons, 2006. ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, Hardcover: 320 pages, available from Amazon.com and also Wiley.com. See our book review of this publication.
- Decks and Porches, the JLC Guide to, Best Practices for Outdoor Spaces, Steve Bliss (Editor), The Journal of Light Construction, Williston VT, 2010 ISBN 10: 1-928580-42-4, ISBN 13: 978-1-928580-42-3, available from Amazon.com
- The Journal of Light Construction has generously given reprint permission to InspectAPedia.com for certain articles found at this website. All rights and contents to those materials are ©Journal of Light Construction and may not be reproduced in any form.
- Appliances and Home Electronics, - energy savings, U.S. Department of Energy
- Avongard foundation crack progress chart for structural crack monitoring
- Basement Moisture Control, U.S. Department of Energy
- Building Failures, Diagnosis & Avoidance, 2d Ed., W.H. Ransom, E.& F. Spon, New York, 1987 ISBN 0-419-14270-3
- Building Pathology, Deterioration, Diagnostics, and Intervention, Samuel Y. Harris, P.E., AIA, Esq., ISBN 0-471-33172-4, John Wiley & Sons, 2001 [General building science-DF] ISBN-10: 0471331724
- Building Pathology: Principles and Practice, David Watt, Wiley-Blackwell; 2 edition (March 7, 2008) ISBN-10: 1405161035 ISBN-13: 978-1405161039
- The Circular Staircase, Mary Roberts Rinehart
- Construction Drawings and Details, Rosemary Kilmer
- Crawl Space Moisture Control, U.S. Department of Energy
- Design of Wood Structures - ASD, Donald E. Breyer, Kenneth Fridley, Kelly Cobeen, David Pollock, McGraw Hill, 2003, ISBN-10: 0071379320, ISBN-13: 978-0071379328
This book is an update of a long-established text dating from at least 1988 (DJF); Quoting:
This book is gives a good grasp of seismic design for wood structures. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations. THE CLASSIC TEXT ON WOOD DESIGN UPDATED TO INCLUDE THE LATEST CODES AND DATA. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design.
- Diagnosing & Repairing House Structure Problems, Edgar O. Seaquist, McGraw Hill, 1980 ISBN 0-07-056013-7 (obsolete, incomplete, missing most diagnosis steps, but very good reading; out of print but used copies are available at Amazon.com, and reprints are available from some inspection tool suppliers). Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
- Domestic Building Surveys, Andrew R. Williams, Kindle book, Amazon.com
- Defects and Deterioration in Buildings: A Practical Guide to the Science and Technology of Material Failure, Barry Richardson, Spon Press; 2d Ed (2001), ISBN-10: 041925210X, ISBN-13: 978-0419252108. Quoting:
A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level.
- Guide to Domestic Building Surveys, Jack Bower, Butterworth Architecture, London, 1988, ISBN 0-408-50000 X
- "Avoiding Foundation Failures," Robert Marshall, Journal of Light Construction, July, 1996 (Highly recommend this article-DF)
- "A Foundation for Unstable Soils," Harris Hyman, P.E., Journal of Light Construction, May 1995
- "Backfilling Basics," Buck Bartley, Journal of Light Construction, October 1994
- "Inspecting Block Foundations," Donald V. Cohen, P.E., ASHI Reporter, December 1998. This article in turn cites the Fine Homebuilding article noted below.
- "When Block Foundations go Bad," Fine Homebuilding, June/July 1998
- Historic Preservation Technology: A Primer, Robert A. Young, Wiley (March 21, 2008)
ISBN-10: 0471788368 ISBN-13: 978-0471788362
- Log Homes: Minimizing Air Leakage in Log Homes, U.S. Department of Energy
- Manual for the Inspection of Residential Wood Decks and Balconies, by Cheryl Anderson, Frank Woeste (Forest Products Society), & Joseph Loferski, October 2003, ISBN-13: 978-1892529343, $39.00 at Amazon.com or at the InspectAPediaBookstore
- Masonry structures: The Masonry House, Home Inspection of a Masonry Building & Systems, Stephen Showalter (director, actor), DVD, Quoting:
Movie Guide Experienced home inspectors and new home inspectors alike are sure to learn invaluable tips in this release designed to take viewers step-by-step through the home inspection process. In addition to being the former president of the National Association of Home Inspectors (NAHI), a longstanding member of the NAHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI), and the Environmental Standard Organization (IESO), host Stephen Showalter has performed over 8000 building inspections - including environmental assessments. Now, the founder of a national home inspection school and inspection training curriculum shares his extensive experience in the inspection industry with everyday viewers looking to learn more about the process of evaluating homes. Topics covered in this release include: evaluation of masonry walls; detection of spalling from rebar failure; inspection of air conditioning systems; grounds and landscaping; electric systems and panel; plumbing supply and distribution; plumbing fixtures; electric furnaces; appliances; evaluation of electric water heaters; and safety techniques. Jason Buchanan --Jason Buchanan, All Movie Review
- Masonry Design for Engineers and Architects, M. Hatzinikolas, Y. Korany, Canadian Masonry (2005), ISBN-10: 0978006100, ISBN-13: 978-0978006105
- Masonry Structures: Behavior and Design, Robert G. Drysdale, Ahmid A. Hamid, Lawrie R. Baker, The Masonry Society; 2nd edition (1999), ISBN-10: 1929081014, ISBN-13: 978-1929081011
- Masonry, Engineered: Using the Canadian Code, J. I. Gainville, Cantext publications (1983), ASIN: B0007C37PG
- Masonry, Non-reinforced masonry design tables, Hans J. Schultz, National Concrete Producers Association and the Canadian Masonry Contractors Association (1976), ASIN: B0007C2LQM
- Moisture Control in Buildings, U.S. Department of Energy
- Moisture Control in Walls, U.S. Department of Energy
- Quality Standards for the Professional Remodeling Industry, National Association of Home Builders Remodelers Council, NAHB Research Foundation, 1987.
- Quality Standards for the Professional Remodeler, N.U. Ahmed, # Home Builder Pr (February 1991), ISBN-10: 0867183594, ISBN-13: 978-0867183597
- R-Value of Wood, U.S. Department of Energy
- Slab on Grade Foundation Moisture and Air Leakage, U.S. Department of Energy
- Straw Bale Home Design, U.S. Department of Energy provides information on strawbale home construction - original source at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/designing_remodeling/index.cfm/mytopic=10350
- More Straw Bale Building: A Complete Guide to Designing and Building with Straw (Mother Earth News Wiser Living Series), Chris Magwood, Peter Mack, New Society Publishers (February 1, 2005), ISBN-10: 0865715181 ISBN-13: 978-0865715189 - Quoting:
Straw bale houses are easy to build, affordable, super energy efficient, environmentally friendly, attractive, and can be designed to match the builder’s personal space needs, esthetics and budget. Despite mushrooming interest in the technique, however, most straw bale books focus on “selling” the dream of straw bale building, but don’t adequately address the most critical issues faced by bale house builders. Moreover, since many developments in this field are recent, few books are completely up to date with the latest techniques.
More Straw Bale Building is designed to fill this gap. A completely rewritten edition of the 20,000-copy best--selling original, it leads the potential builder through the entire process of building a bale structure, tackling all the practical issues: finding and choosing bales; developing sound building plans; roofing; electrical, plumbing, and heating systems; building code compliance; and special concerns for builders in northern climates.
- "Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders", U.S. DOE: how vapor barriers work, types of vapor diffusion barriers, installing vapor barrier
- Ventilation for energy efficient buildings, Purpose, Strategies, etc.,
Log Home Design, Inspection, Maintenance, Repair References & Product Sources
- Log Homes: Minimizing Air Leakage in Log Homes, U.S. Department of Energy
- Log Homes: Controlling Moisture in Log Homes, U.S. Department of Energy
- Log Homes: Log Home Design, U.S. Department of Energy
- Lincoln Log Homes Marketing, Inc., 6000 Lumber Lane, Kannapolis NC 28081 704-932-6151
- Merrimac Log Homes, Henniker, NH, sells log home products, milled log home kits, log siding, and log home plans and log home construction accessories. 866-637-7462 or email@example.com - merrimacloghomes.com
- PermaChink Systems, Knoxville TN 800-548-1231 provides a range of log chinking products, coatings, and sealants for log and other wood buildings.