POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about fiberboard building sheathing: how to identify fiberboard products, fiberboard uses, fiberboard, Celotex, Homasote, Insulite & other brands, fiberboard ingredients, does fiberboard contain asbestos?
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Does or did Celotex® or Homasote® or other fiberboard and insulating board products contain asbestos? This article addresses worries about asbestos in fiberboard insulating sheathing - a question that comes up during building demolition and renovation. The short answer is "no" but the history is interesting. We include research citations and testing lab referrals for concerned readers.
This article series describes and provides photographs that aid in identifying various insulating board & fiberboard sheathing materials used on building walls and roofs, such as Homasote, Celotex, Insulite, and Masonite insulating board sheathing products. Here we provide fiberboard product names and we describe the components, properties, and applications of various fiberboard, hardboard, and insulating board or sound deadening board products.
We also answer questions about fiberboard water resistance, fiberboard recycling.
Is there Asbestos Content in Insulating Board Products such as Beaverboard, Celotex, Homasote, Insulite?
Question: What is Celotex Insulating Lumber? Do insulating board products contain asbestos?
I have a home built in 1940 that used a brown fiber board called "Celotex Insulating Lumber" looks like is was designed to be used as sheathing and lath. Made in either Chicago on Louisiana. Anyone familiar with this? Or know if it contained asbestos? - Dan Theisen 1/30/12
6/25/2014 Sara said:
Does Beaver Board contan asbestos? I am cleaning out my grandmothers home and her basement has a beaverboad ceiling. The home is approximatly 65 years old but not sure how long the tiles have been in the basement
Dan, Celotex, a Chicago company, has been a producer of a wide variety of insulating sheathing boards for a long time and the company continues to produce modern insulating board products as well.
Celotex Insulating Lumber was introduced by the Celotex corporation in 1922, making it
"... possible for the first time to build a completely insulated house practically without extra cost". 
Our illustration (left) shows Celotex insulating lumber on the exterior of a Lebanon PA home.
No, beaverboard is a wood fiber product not an asbestos-product.
There was some question, not substantiated by any research I could find, that because some wood fiber board products may have been made at the same site where asbestos-containing materials had been used, that there may have been some cross contamination; that theory has not been supported.
Reader Question: Could my fiberboard sheathed house contain asbestos?
(Dec 15, 2012) Lisa said:
i live in a BISF house the interior walls are some kind of board they look like fibre board and are a light brown some are more grey..could they contain asbestos?
Fiberboard sheathing is a wood product.
Checks & MSDS Citations for Asbestos Content in Fiberboard Insulation
A review of the patents and product description for Celotex insulating lumber products shows that asbestos was not among the product's ingredients.
In "Insulite Co. vs. Reserve Supply Co", a 1932 lawsuit, relevant patents and ingredients are described, including a composition of plaster of paris, cement, or other like substance, combined with hair, wood fiber, sawdust, wool, wood shavings, excelsior, straw, or similar substances. (Asbestos was not cited in the product description. )
In sum these are benign products for the most part, though wood dust particles from any wood material can be a potential hazard. For the specifics of your fiberboard siding you'll want to consult the MSDS of the particular product. For example:
Homasote 440 - quoting: Cellulose based material containing 1 to 2% paraffin wax, CAS 8002-74-2, and less than 0.1% copper base pesticide, CAS 39290-85-2. The product contains no known hazardous or
Knight-Celotex Fiberboard™ MSDS (Marrero Plant), MSDS No. 00040-85F, 4/19/2002, trade name Premium Fiberboard Insulating Sheathing, Manufactured Home USB, Coated 1 & 6 Sided, lists the following ingredients: Cellulose (<= 96%), Starch (<= 10%), Paraffin Wax (<= 2%), Carbon Black (<= 0.5%), Clay (<= 2%), and Lamination Adhesive (<= 3.5%). Original source: anoziraworks.com/uploads/Celotex_Fiber_board.pdf
StructoDek® high density roof insulation, laminated board & coated 1 & 6-sided, MSDS: 001-86F, 4/12/2005, Knight-Celotex LLC, Northfield IL Tel: 800-596-9699 lists these ingredients: Cellulose (<95%), Starch (<9%), clay (1%), Carbon Black (1%), Wax (1%), Laminating Adhesive (< 3.5%). Original source: usply.com/downloads/other/msds-structodek.pdf
Sturdy-Brace High Density Fiberboard, produced by Blue Ridge™ Fiberboard - MSDS: "Hazardous Components": Wood Fiber*. [In other words, Asbestos is not present].
Watch out: * *: Wood dust is listed by the IARC as a human carcinogen (Group 1).
Structodek High Density Fiberboard Roof Insulation is defined by OSHA (29 CFR Part 1910) as an "Article". A manufactured item which is formed to a specific shape or design during manufacture which does not release or otherwise result in exposure to a hazardous chemical under normal conditions of use.
In other words, the dose makes the poison for all substances.
Really?: we have read a few accounts indicating that while asbestos was not an ingredient in fiberboard insulating sheet products, some of these products may have been manufactured at or near facilities previously used to process asbestos materials. The question of cross-contamination arose but I have not yet found a report of actual asbestos contamination in fiberboard from that source (nor others).
Reader Question: does the brown insulating board found under bowling alley lane material contain asbestos?
I am writing to you because I found your website after realizing I may have been handling asbestos-containing materials for the past year or so without knowing.
I don't know how it didn't occur to me sooner, but now I'm really scared and don't know where to turn for help.
I'm a teacher in NYC and, unrelated to my teaching, about a year ago I started working with old bowling lane flooring.
On the underside of bowling lane floors there is a fiberboard type material I believed was used for sound dampening.
I've handled and ripped off this material so many times without once thinking what it was- I think I was told it was Homasote and harmless.
Since many of these bowling lanes were installed many years ago, it worried me even more.
Now I'm not so sure what it is and scared at the thought of what it could be.
I've spent the last few hours panicked at the computer searching for information, trying not to show my wife how scared I am.
If there is any way you could call me or share any information, I would be so grateful.
Your website seems like the work of a very knowledgeable expert in this area so I'm turning to you for some advice. Attached below is a photo of some of the material- it is the black strips of material stapled to the black underside of the wooden board on the left.
Again, thank you in advance for any information you can offer. Feel free to call any time of day or night.
Thank you for taking the time to speak with me yesterday. I really appreciate your advice and insight into my situation. I attached a link below to a bunch of photos of this material that was attached to the back of three different pieces of the bowling lane.
There are just strips of this material attached with staples to the underside every few feet of the bowling lane. Some is black on the outside, some is white, and some is just like a brown cardboard color-- it all looks fairly similar on the inside.
If you can let me know what you think ASAP, that would be great- I know you told me not to be, but I am really worried about all this- I've been a mess all week at school.
Also, if you have those names or contact info for anyone who might be willing to test this material for me, that would also be incredibly helpful.
I can't thank you enough for your help with this- feel free to call or email me back with any information. - A.S. 11/5/2013
Reply: The material looks like and probably is a wood fiber insulating board - not asbestos-containing. But protect yourself from demolition dust.
The material I can see in your online photos is almost certainly wood fiber based Homasote type insulating board. That is not an asbestos product. You can see more examples of this product at SHEATHING, FIBERBOARD
If nevertheless you want to have as sample of the material tested for asbestos content, the cost is usually minor - about $50. U.S. You can use any certified asbestos testing laboratory - and can find one via help given at ASBESTOS TESTING LAB LIST.
As we discussed by telephone, you should, however protect yourself from breathing dust during any demolition project.
While the material you are working with was sandwiched between other building materials: bowling alley lane surfacing and the subflooring atop the floor structure - a location where it was rather protected unless the building flooded. In that location I speculate the material would be less likely to be contaminated by other exposures.
Nevertheless, breathing high levels fine dust particles that can be released into the air by the disassembly or demolishing of building is a health risk. Ultra fine particles, down in the 1u range are probably low in dust from fiberboard sheathing, but of course I don't know what else is in the environment where you are working.
To be ultra safe while working you'd wear a HEPA-rated dust mask. At a very minimum I recommend you wear a paper N-95 dust mask as well as other appropriate protection (eyes, hands) when disassembling and demolishing these materials.
If you decide to have a section of the material tested for asbestos, I would choose a piece of the insulating board that has that white skin or coating - to check that those products were not made with a facing of asbestos paper.
The history of fiberboard insulating products is interesting in that while the product itself is not an asbestos-based material, there were some questions of cross contamination with asbestos because of the manufacturing location of some brands. However to date, except for Kollman (1975) I have not found scholarly studies nor other information that confirmed that wood fiberboard based insulating board did actually contain asbestos.
References on Possible Asbestos Contaminants in Fiberboard Insulation Products
Some interesting citations pertinent to the question include both articles and patents that I include below
Altree-Williams, S., and J. S. Preston. "Asbestos and other fibre levels in buildings." Annals of Occupational Hygiene 29, no. 3 (1985): 357-363.
Cadotte, John E. "Manufacture of mineral fiberboard." U.S. Patent 3,297,517, issued January 10, 1967.
Coliection, Wood. "Wastes into Wood: Composites Are Promising New Resource. [PDF] http://europepmc.org/articles/PMC1567208?pdf=render [copy on file]
Coutts, Robert SP. "A review of Australian research into natural fibre cement composites." Cement and Concrete Composites 27, no. 5 (2005): 518-526.
[Possibly a significant citation & source of confustion about the asbestos content of wood-product fiberobard sheets because this text uses the term "asbestos fiberboard" as do some others - Ed.]
English, Brent. "Wastes into wood: composites are a promising new resource." Environmental Health Perspectives 102, no. 2 (1994): 168.
Falk, Bob. "Wood-Framed Building Deconstruction." Forest Products Journal 52, no. 3 (2002): 9.
Jamison, Danny G. "Method for using scrap rubber; scrap synthetic and textile material to create particle board products with desirable thermal and acoustical insulation values." U.S. Patent 5,439,735, issued August 8, 1995.
Ince, Peter J., and David B. McKeever. Recovery of paper and wood for recycling: actual and potential. Vol. 88. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 1995.
Ince, Peter J., and David B. McKeever. "Estimates of paper and wood recovery for recycling and potential for additional recovery in the United States." WOODFIBER plastic composites: virgin and recycled wood fiber and polymers for composites. Madison: Forest Products Society (1995): 144-154.
Kollmann, Franz FP, Edward W. Kuenzi, and Alfred J. Stamm. "Fiberboard." In Principles of Wood Science and Technology, pp. 551-672. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1975. [Significantly this article refers to the occasional blending of asbestos with wood fiber products.]
Lundgren, S. Ake. "Hardboard as construction material—a viscoelastic substance." Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 15, no. 1 (1957): 19-23.
Sebastien, P. M. A. G. A. G. J., M. A. Billon, G. Dufour, A. Gaudichet, G. Bonnaud, and J. Bignon. "Levels of asbestos air pollution in some environmental situations." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 330, no. 1 (1979): 401-415.
Selikoff, Irving John, and Douglas HK Lee. Asbestos and disease. Academic Press, 1978.
Stratton, J. C., and I. S. Walker. "Health and Safety Guide for Home Performance Contractors." (2012).
Wise, Steve H. "Production of fiberboard containing mineral fiber." U.S. Patent 3,093,533, issued June 11, 1963.
We i am curious about the black board? Our house was built in 1962 and I need to drill through the black board to run electrical! Some of it is super brittle and falling apart anyway. Was any of that stuff made with asbestos? What are chances it has asbestos in it? - Brett 9/4/2011
I was tearing off parts an outside wall connected to the garage to add insulation to the wall, after removing the plywood and tar paper I ran into Celotex fiber/black board.
I have a picture of it to upload if at all possible, but what I can see is that it is black fiber board with Celotex in yellow writing with patent pend. underneath the logo. The house was built in 1950 and I am concerned this product actually may contain asbestos. Is there any way you can confirm or deny this or point me in the right direction to find out. - Jon T. 11/5/2011
Reply: Asbestos is not an ingredient in fiberboard insulating sheathing. See the product description & MSDS information above
Brett and Jon: it's easy to drill through "black board" Homasote or Celotex type building insulating sheathing. Generally the product is made from wood fibers, not asbestos - See the insulating board MSDS data sheet quotations in the FAQ discussion just above.
Though I've heard rumor, not fact, claiming that some fiberboard insulating sheathing products contained asbestos, I have been unable to find an authoritative source that confirmed that worry for any of those products. Take a look at the insulating board MSDS data in the FAQ above about yard mulch and you'll see clear statements from the manufacturers on this matter.
I only have to drill small hole to run wiring! Some of it's already crumbling and brittle! It's black on outside looks like wood inside. I too have not been able to find anything confirming or not confirming this concern! I'm stuck with new electrical to run and deciding if this is health issue or or not. Thank you again - Brett
Sounds as if the risk is nil, Brett. In addition to the comment we made above (wood fibers are not asbestos), you can minimize dust release by moistening the drilling area a bit. It's unlikely that there would be a measurable hazard from drilling a single wire-sized hole. Too, if you have a generic objection to even small amounts of dust from any building material, you have the option of HEPA vacuuming during and after drilling to keep the dust out of the air.
Reader Question: Is this a brown insulation board? I worry that it contains asbestos.
I know you guys know a lot about asbestos containing products and just wanted advice on a wood like fibre board I found in a cellar, I was worried it contains asbestos but just looks too dark to be to me and more like other wood fibre boards you discuss on your website. Any views would be appreciated. Picture attached! (feel free to republish as you like). - B.K. 06/29/2012
A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem - in the case of your photo it looks as if that area has been quite wet for some time - nice mushrooms growing - watch out for rotted ceiling joists or rafters.
It appears that the original ceiling was a brown fiberboard product that was later covered by drywall - visible in the left side of your picture. Your home is an old one - the roof sheathing boards visible where the ceiling has collapsed in from leaks were cut with a machine-operated pit saw. Depending on the building's location, that could be a structure built before 1900. Fiberboard products have been around in the U.S. since about 1858, though they were not widely used until the 1940's.
The brownboard in your photo looks to me like a wood fiber product. Depending on the age of the building and its location (in the U.S. ?) that ceiling could have been originally installed using an insulating fiberboard from any of fourteen manufacturers, so there are indeed variations in both original color, and in color after wetting and age.
Can you tell me the thickness of the material? Insulating fiberboards were usually 15/32" thick, with a few 1/2" thick; Hardboard such as some Masonite products can be 1/4? or thinner, and are hard. In your photo the board looks thicker than that, but the way it is tearing left me to consider a hardboard product. I'd be glad for you to send me about 2 sq.in. in a clean ziplok bag, so that I can examine it in the lab (pro-bono, no fee). Unfortunately though I won't be able to examine it closely until our lab returns to the U.S. in January.
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 Homasote® Company, 932 Lower Ferry Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628-0240 Tel: 800-257-9491 Ext 1332, or from outside the U.S. call 609-883-3300. Website: http://www.homasote.com/ , Email: Sales@homasote.com.
Thanks to Homasote CEO Warren Flicker for technical review and comment on this article.
Mark Cramer Inspection Services Mark Cramer, Tampa Florida, Mr. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator. Mr. Cramer serves on the ASHI Home Inspection Standards. Contact Mark Cramer at: 727-595-4211 mark@BestTampaInspector.com
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060. He is also a contributor to InspectApedia.com in several technical areas such as plumbing and appliances (dryer vents). Contact Mr. Cranor at 804-747-7747 or by Email: email@example.com
Home Inspection Education Home Study Courses - ASHI@Home Training 10-course program. Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
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 Celotex Corporation, PO Box 31602, Tampa FL 33631, with offices in Atlanta, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas, Oakland and Philadelphia, and plants in six U.S. States is headquartered in Tampa, FL. Celotex is a national manufacturer of residential and commercial building materials. Website: www.celotex.com Tel: 800-CELOTEX
"Insulation Selector Guide", Celotex Corporation, web search 6/29/12, original source: http://www.silvercote.com/PDF/ThermaxInsulSelectorGuide.pdf, [copy on file as CelotexThermaxInsulSelectorGuide.pdf ]
"Celotex Blue Ridge Fiberboard", SturdyBrace®, produced by Blue Ridge Fiberboard Inc., 250 Celotex Dr., Danville VA 24541, product literature, web search 6/29/2012, original source: blueridgefiberboard.com/pages/sturdybrace.php, [Copy on file as Celotex_BlueRidge_SturdyBrace.pdf].
MSDS: original source: blueridgefiberboard.com/pages/sturdybrace/pdfs/SturdyBrace-msds-br.pdf
"Guide Specifications: SturdyBrace® Structural Fiberboard Wall Sheathing", 6/29/12, original source: blueridgefiberboard.com/pages/sturdybrace.php [Copy on file as SturdyBrace-guidespecs.pdf]
 Douglas Leen, Petersburg AK 99833, contributed the photograph of insulating board scraps from roof insulation removed from a building. Dr. Leen provides such a wide range of services, collectables, and historical information about the Northwest that a succinct description is difficult: flying dentist goes anywhere, antique forestry posters, historic campers, the tugboat Katahdin, in Alaska, Washington, and Wyoming. Mr. Leen can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org or at 907-518-0335
 Georgia Pacific: information about DensGlas gypsum board building sheathing can be found at the company's website at gp.com/build/product.aspx?pid=4674
 Pittsburgh Press, "Yesterday - in costly homes alone, Today even the simplest home can have this hidden comfort", The Pittsburgh Press, 19 April 1925, classified ads section. Web search 6/22/12, [Copy on file as Celotex_Ad_023_PP.jpg and more]
 pending research
Patents pertaining to building insulation & insulating board, Celotex & Insulating Board type products
"Sound absorbing board for walls and ceilings", Patent No. 1,554,180, issued to W.S. Trader, September 15,1925, first disclosed a wallboard constructed from "Celotex", a felted mass of strong bagasse fibers, so compacted as to be capable of use as an artificial lumber in that it can be sawed and nailed, and has sufficient strength in many cases to be substituted for lumber. That same patent mentions "Insulite", a building board made from wood pulp tailings and which likewise has a porous fibrous body portion and which is possessed of considerable strength so that the same can be nailed, etc. Celotex was preferred as an insulating material because its internal cells produce a sound-deadening insulating effect.
"Method and apparatus for drying moving material", Treadway B. Munroe et als, assigned to Dahlberg & Co., U.S. Patent No. 1,598,980, 7 September 1926, described a method and apparatus for drying sheets of artificial heat insulating lumber, known on the market as Celotex, improving the original process.
"Reenforced composition board", Treadway B. Munroe et als, U.S. Patent No. 1,578,344, 30 March 1926
"Insulating Structural Board", U.S. Patent 2,159,300, Armen H. Tashjian et als, assigned to William B. Miller, Lakewood OH, 23 May 1939, describes insulating structural boards of laminated construction for use as roof or floor slabs, and refers to "Standard insulating fiber boards, such as "Celotex", "Masonite", "Insulite", etc. that had excellent insulating properties but have relatively slight structural strength in flexure or bending under load, hence are not and cannot be used as structural slabs for load sustaining purposes, as roof or floor slabs, for example. [Adding structural strength ran into the problem of reducing the insulating value of the product.]
"Sound-absorbing chamber", Treadway B. Munroe et als, U.S. Patent No. 1,705,778, 19 March 1929 (using Celotex to construct a sound deadening chamber.
"Method of and apparatus for drying moving material", U.S. Patent 2,376,612, Carl G. Muench, New Orleans, assigned to Celotex Corporation, described a method and apparatus for drying sheets of artificial heat insulating lumber, preferably formed by the felting of bagasse fiber along with other materials necessary to make a satisfactory structural fiber board. 22 May 1945
"Sound-absorbing board for walls and ceilings," U.S. Patent 1,554,180, Sept. 15, 1925, Wilber S. Trader, assignor to Dahlberg & Company, Chicago IL. described an interior-use sound insulating product.
 "Insulite Co. v. Reserve Supply Co.," 60F.2d 433 (1932), Circuit Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, July 26, 1932. Web Search t/23/12. Quoting:
Rabbeted joints in material to which plaster or other material is applied are found in the Jones patent, No. 886,813. In this patent the composition is made up of plaster of paris, cement, or other like substance, combined with hair, wood fiber, sawdust, wool, wood shavings, excelsior, straw, or similar substances. The length of the lath covers three joists instead of four. The boards are arranged in staggered relation to each other and the joints are shiplapped. The specification states that after the boards or blocks are placed in position they may be covered with wallpaper or other similar material, which, of course, would include plaster.
"Machine for perforating Insulite Boards", U.S. Patent No. 1,306,283, Patented 10 June 1919, John K. Shaw, inventor from Minneapolis MN, describes improvements for machines for perforating Insulite Boards.
"Before you Build write for this mailing piece and a sample of Insulite", [advertisement], The Literary Digest, 13 September 1940.
 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, web search 6/22/12, original source: http://cameo.mfa.org/browse/record.asp?subkey=3644 [Copy on file as MFAB_Fiberboard.pdf]
 "Separating the Fiber of Wood", A.S. Lyman, U.S. Patent No. 21,077, 3 August 1858
 Standards pertaining to fiberboard insulating sheathing:
ASTM C 208-95 (2001) – Standard Specification for Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board. Type IV Grade 2 (Structural Wall Sheathing).
ASTM C 846-94 (2003) – Application of Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board for Wall Sheathing.
ASTM D 1554 - Definitions of terms Relating to Wood Based Fiber and Particle Panel Materials.
ASTM E-72 (1997)- Standard Method for Conducting Strength Tests of Panels for Building Construction.
ANSI /AHA - A194.1, Cellulosic Fiberboard.
U.S. Department of Commerce: PS57-73, Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board
A.F.A. (2003): Fiberboard Sheathing test results
 "Properties of insulating fiberboard sheathing",
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Luxford, R. F. (Ronald Floyd), 1889 (1960), original report 1955, citation:hdl.handle.net/1957/2489, web search 6/29/12, original source: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/2489
Design of Wood Structures - ASD, Donald E. Breyer, Kenneth Fridley, Kelly Cobeen, David Pollock, McGraw Hill, 2003, ISBN-10: 0071379320, ISBN-13: 978-0071379328
This book is an update of a long-established text dating from at least 1988 (DJF); Quoting: This book is gives a good grasp of seismic design for wood structures. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations.THE CLASSIC TEXT ON WOOD DESIGN UPDATED TO INCLUDE THE LATEST CODES AND DATA. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design.
Diagnosing & Repairing House Structure Problems, Edgar O. Seaquist, McGraw Hill, 1980 ISBN 0-07-056013-7 (obsolete, incomplete, missing most diagnosis steps, but very good reading; out of print but used copies are available at Amazon.com, and reprints are available from some inspection tool suppliers). Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
Defects and Deterioration in Buildings: A Practical Guide to the Science and Technology of Material Failure, Barry Richardson, Spon Press; 2d Ed (2001), ISBN-10: 041925210X, ISBN-13: 978-0419252108. Quoting: A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level.
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