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This document explains what a drywell or seepage pit is, gives safety and maintenance advice for drywells / seepage pits, and defines the
criteria for drywell failure. We also explain a useful difference between a drywell (accepts only graywater) and a seepage pit (accepts septic effluent). We warn readers that while installation of a drywell to receive graywater at a property may be a good idea, the use of drywells may be a warning about the capacity and remaining life of the septic system.
This article series explains septic system and drywell or seepage pit or cesspool inspection procedures,
defects in onsite waste disposal systems, septic tank problems, septic drainfield problems, checklists of system components and things to ask. Drywell & seepage pit maintenance and
Seepage pit design specifications: this article discusses the design & construction of septic seepage pits for septic wastewater treatment to perform the functions of septic effluent treatment and disposal
in onsite wastewater treatment systems, conventionally called "septic systems". A seepage pit is designed to receive clarified effluent from a septic tank, or if the pit receives only gray water (GREYWATER SYSTEMS) then it's called a drywell.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
Seepage pits: a "seepage pit" may be used as a septic effluent absorption system such as shown in the sketch at the top of the page and also
In this application, instead of receiving only graywater from sinks, laundry, shower, etc., the seepage pit is receiving not just graywater but also
blackwater-effluent or septic effluent which flows out of a septic tank.
Unlike the drywell described just above, in this design
waste, including black water and gray water, leaves the building through a main drain which enters a septic tank. The tank
retains solids and grease/floating scum, allowing clarified effluent to enter the seepage pit for disposal into the soil.
Distinctions among cesspool, cistern, drywell & seepage pit:
Cesspool: a hole in the ground, lined with site built or manufactured perforated sides / bottom that receives raw sewge, blackwater, including solids and liquids, allowing effluent to seep out of the cesspool into surrounding soils. There is no separate effluent disposal system.
Cistern: a holding tank above or below ground used for storing clean water for drinking or other uses
Drywell: a hole in the ground, lined with site built or manufactured perforated sides / bottom that receives graywater or other non-sewage water such as roof drainage
Seepage pit: a hole in the ground, lined with site built or manufactured perforated sides / bottom that receives liquids only (i.e. not a cesspool). In our usage, a seepage pit receives septic effluent from a separate septic tank, while a drywell receives graywater or other non-septic drainage waters directly from their source. We perfer to distinguish between these two applications because depending on how a seepage pit is being used, its design, capacity, life and maintenance may be different. But many other texts use the terms drywell and seepage pit as synonyms.
Seepage pits come in a variety of capacities, sizes, shapes, and can be safe (against collapse) when a modern factory-built unit
is shown, such as those in this photo.
Watch out: We do not consider the use of traditional seepage pits a complete and satisfactory onsite septic effluent wastewater disposal system design,
though where space is limited or for other problem site
reasons it may have been the choice of the septic system installer.
Disposal of septic effluent deep below ground in a seepage pit (typically
four to six feet deep and placed another two or more feet below grade level) means that little or no aerobic bacteria will be present.
the bacterial action to anaerobic may mean that the biomat that forms around the seepage pit will not adequately treat the effluent. The system
may then be discharging contaminants into groundwater and the environment.
Fortunately there are alternative onsite wastewater disposal alternative designs which can handle limited or even zero-space sites,
so a simple seepage pit as a destination for blackwater effluent is no longer the only choice for limited-space sites.
More Reading about Seepage Pits for Septic Effluent Disposal
(h) Seepage Pits used for septic system effluent disposal in "New York State Septic System Design Regulations 75-A.8 Subsurface treatment - disposal of septic effluent - design specifications for septic systems"
includes design specifications for seepage pits used to receive septic effluent, including tables of dimensions required
for different household loads.
Drywell and Seepage Pit Safety and Septic System Capacity Warnings
Drywell & Seepage Pit Safety
Watch out: Safety Warning: do not walk over the top of or close to the edges of a drywell or any other onsite pit or excavation because
of the danger of fatal collapse. Keep pets and children away from such systems.
Watch out: Safety Warning: there is a risk of drywell collapse, risking injury and potential fatality if someone falls in to one of these
systems, particularly for older site-built systems that were often made of dry-stacked stone or concrete block,
and more-so if such systems are not protected by a very secure cover. Believe it or not, simple wood board covers
were often used on home-made drywells. Such covers rot and ultimately collapse.
Drywell & Seepage Pit Capacity and Testing Limitations
Limited septic system capacity implied by the presence of a seepage pit. Wet soil conditions or limited space
for a functioning drain field (for the septic system) often leads property owners to reduce the liquid load on
the septic system by routing gray water to a separate drywell. Where such a system is installed owners/buyers should
be alert for these conditions and should expect to face extra costs for system maintenance and repair as well as
limited septic system capacity.
An exception to the septic system capacity warning above at a large building where a sink or laundry are added in an area distant from piping
connected to the septic system, an owner may add a remote drywell as an alternative to inconvenient and costly routing
of a drain line from the laundry to the existing septic system.
Septic system test warning: the use of seepage pits (or drywells) can obscure or prevent effective septic loading and dye testing: If a drywell system is installed, running water at the fixtures draining into this system
(as may be done by some septic tests) are likely to fail to perform a loading test on the septic system even if such a test was attempted.
First, the fixtures where water was run in attempt to test the septic system (tank and leach field) may not even be delivering
water to those components if instead the fixtures drain to a separate drywell. It is critical to trace building drains as part of
a septic test or to otherwise try to determine if the test water is actually entering the septic system.
Even if we're trying to "test the drywell or seepage pit", if the seepage pit is "working" at all, it is a large, mostly empty hole in the ground. After a period of disuse it may appear
to be working during a test because the "test" is simply filling up the empty hole in the ground. But if soils around the seepage pit (or drywell for that matter) have become clogged, the system will fail in a day or two of ordinary use as the no-longer functioning hole is filled with wastewater.
Where a drywell or seepage pit is installed at a property and a septic inspection was attempted, more testing may be in order: in cases where only toilets empty into the septic system, it may be possible to make a more effective septic loading and dye test:
put a test water load directly into the toilet by using a garden hose.
This is not a typical/normal septic test procedure and has its own concerns
such as overloading a system of unknown design that did not anticipate such volumes and possible back-contamination of water supply via hose in toilet
(a cross connection). Whether or not such an additional test is performed, our warning about a system of limited capacity for which the owner
may face significant costs to repair or expand capacity remains in effect.
Tips for Extending Seepage Pit Life Life
Some experts recommend installing a filter on water entering the seepage pit. Particularly for a seepage pit
used to receive water not just from a septic tank receiving black water but also graywater from a clothes washing machine, installing a lint filter between the washing machine
and the seepage pit can extend the life of the drywell by reducing the moment of soil-clogging particles of
lint and debris into the system.
Intermittent dosing systems such as are used for some alternative septic system designs, can also be adapted
to graywater systems. In simple terms, this means that multiple drywells are used, and graywater is routed
intermittently among them, giving the unused drywell time to recover. A simple valve system on the
graywater drain line can serve
to route greywater (graywater) to alternating drywells.
Cesspools gives more in-depth information about those systems.
Seepage Pits - Seepage Pits used for septic system effluent disposal
Repeating an important distinction we made above, a cesspool is not a seepage pit, and vice versa, though their construction may be similar. Cesspools receive black water (sewage including solids) directly. Seepage pits receive only clarified septic effluent ( no large solids).
(1) General notes about seepage pit septic system components
A seepage pit, sometimes called a leaching pit, leaching pool, or incorrectly a cesspool,
is a covered pit with an open-jointed or perforated lining through which septic tank
effluent seeps into the surrounding soil.
[DF NOTE: the term drywell might be used for a seepage pit disposing of septic effluent
in this case; by contrast, a cesspool holds both solid waste and septic effluent.
I use the term "seepage pit" to refer to a pit used to dispose of septic effluent
which originated as blackwater, the solids having been retained in the septic tank.
I use the term "drywell" to refer to a pit used to dispose of graywater (greywater)
which originated in sinks, laundry facilities, or showers. While their uses and
implications of their presence at a property are quite different, the actual construction
details of a seepage pit or a drywell are about the same.
DRYWELL DESIGN & USES (our main page on this topic) for more in-depth information about seepage pit and drywell systems.
Seepage pits and drywells are discussed in greater depth and are contrasted with cesspools at DRYWELLS for onsite wastewater disposal or onsite gray water disposal - What are Drywells, What Drywell Maintenance is Needed? How do Drywells Fail?
Cesspools for more in-depth information about those systems.
(2) Site Requirements for septic seepage pits
(i) If soil and site conditions are adequate for absorption trenches, seepage pits shall not be used.
(ii) A minimum three foot vertical separation must exist between the bottom of any pit and the high groundwater level, bedrock, or other impervious layer.
(3) Design Criteria for seepage pits used to dispose of septic effluent
(i) The required "effective seepage pit area" is obtained from Tables 6 and 7 which are shown below.
(ii) No allowance for infiltration area is made for the bottom area of a pit or the surface area of impervious soil layers (percolation rate
slower than 60 minutes/inch).
(iii) The effective diameter of a pit includes the diameter of the
lining plus the added diameter provided by the annular ring of
aggregate. Any area surrounding the liner with rock smaller than 2 1/2
inches in size shall not be included as part of the effective diameter.
(iv) Effective depth is measured from the invert of the seepage pit
inlet to the floor of the pit, with the thickness of impervious layers
Site Distance Requirements for Seepage Pits
This sketch (from New York's Wastewater Regulations) shows the recommended site clearances between a seepage pit (or cesspool or drywell)
and other building and site features.
A more detailed list of site clearances to septic system components is listed at "More Reading"
just below. Notice that seepage pits not only need to be at a sufficient distance from the building, from wells, from property lines,
but also if multiple seepage pits are installed, they should be adequately separated from one another.
Table 6 shown here gives the required soil absorption area for seepage pits
as a function of soil percolation rate and anticipated daily wastewater flow in gallons.
[Click to see an enlarged, detailed version of this or any other image or table found at InspectApedia.com]
TABLE 6 - SEEPAGE PITS - REQUIRED ABSORPTIVE AREA
(IN SQUARE FEET) FOR HOUSEHOLD SYSTEMS
Seepage Pit Size Requirements to Obtain Necessary Absorption Area
Table 7 given below shows the size of seepage pit necessary in order to
provide the required soil absorption area for seepage pits. First use
the preceding table to determine the necessary seepage pit absorption area,
then use this table (below) to determine the necessary seepage pit size to
provide that absorption area.
TABLE 7 - SEEPAGE PITS (CYLINDRICAL) - DIMENSIONS FOR
REQUIRED ABSORPTIVE AREA (IN SQUARE FEET)
Seepage Pit Construction Details: Linings, Separation, Strength, Connections
The schematic of a seepage pit (left, courtesy USDA) shows typical construction of a site built seepage pit using brick, block, or pre-cast concrete rings with open joints, surrounded by stone to improve soil absorption.
NYS: (v) Seepage pit linings may be pre cast concrete, cast-in-place concrete,
or built in
place with unmortared hollow cinder or concrete blocks. Concrete shall
have a minimum compressive strength of 2,500 psi and 3,000 psi is
Material with comparable structural strength, determined
in accordance with commonly accepted sewage construction standards,
principles or practices, may be allowed on an individual basis to
prevent unreasonable hardship, provided public health is not prejudiced.
(vi) The separation between the outside edges of seepage pits shall be
three times the effective diameter of the largest pit. This separation
is measured as the undisturbed soil between pit excavations.
(vii) Pits shall be designed with sufficient structural stability to
withstand lateral soil forces as well as vertical loads.
(4) Construction of seepage pits for septic effluent disposal
(i) Laterals leading to each seepage pit must be at least four inches in
diameter with a minimum slope of 1/8 inch per foot.
(ii) Seepage pits shall not be connected in series. A distribution box
shall be required where more than one seepage pit is installed.
(iii) The pit excavation is to be raked to minimize sidewall smearing
that may occur and reduce infiltration capacity. If groundwater is
encountered, the pit shall be backfilled with the original soil to a
level at least three feet higher than maximum groundwater and
adjustments made in the pit dimensions.
(iv) The linings are placed upon a concrete block, poured concrete, or
pre cast footing and surrounded by a six inch minimum annular ring of
large aggregate (2 1/12 - 4 inches in size).
(v) The rock is covered to prevent soil from filling the void spaces.
Building paper, a four inch thick layer of hay or straw may be used.
(vi) The seepage pit cover shall be structurally sound and capable of
supporting 300 pounds per square foot at the weakest point. Covers may
be pre cast concrete or cast-in-place and shall be reinforced. A manhole
with an opening of at least 20 inches in the shortest dimension shall be
Septic Seepage Pit, Drywell, or Cesspool Collapses
A seepage pit, drywell, or cesspool can be collapsed as shown in this photo, where a seepage pit receiving septic
effluent was driven over by a heavy dump truck.
Watch out: Seepage pit, cesspool, or drywell collapses are dangerous and can be fatal if someone falls into the collapsing
Falling into a cesspool, seepage pit, or drywell can easily be fatal, and quickly. We investigated a tragic case in which an adult fell into a cesspool that then collapsed over him, burying him alive.
In general, while there are heavy duty septic system components and covers for pits and tanks, you
should not permit traffic to drive over septic equipment nor on septic fields.
Reader Question: What product can I by that will eat the grit and dirt off the walls of the seepage pit, clean the pores so that the liquids will drain out in the earth, and so that I do not have to pump out all the time?
I live in the Hollywood Hills CA. I have a septic tank inlet and outlet and a seepage pit. My seepage pit & septic I have to have to pump out every 4 months versus 2 years, for the liquids are not seeping out and the pores are clogged with grit, dirt and I would say toilet paper. What product can I by that will eat the grit and dirt off the walls of the seepage pit, clean the pores so that the liquids will drain out in the earth, and so that I do not have to pump out all the time? - S.B.
Reply: Sounds As If You Need a New Seepage Pit
A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a septic system or seepage pit problem.
That said, we do not recommend septic seepage pit additives or cleaners for septic effluent seepage pits (see SEPTIC TREATMENTS & CHEMICALS) - using at least some of these products risks contamination of your environment, groundwater, or nearby wells, and depending on local laws septic treatment chemicals may be illegal as well.
Septic seepage pit rejuvenation methods like agitating or hydrojetting can sometimes temporarily give some relief and cause drainage at least from the bottom of the pit, but depending on how the seepage pit has been constructed these methods can be very dangerous. The risk is a pit collapse, someone can fall in - a fatality that has actually happened more than once.
In sum if the seepage pit no longer drains into the surrounding soils, you need a new one. You can extend the connection to the new seepage pit from an outlet from the old seepage pit provided the old pit is not in danger of collapse.
Otherwise the old pit needs to be abandoned: pumped out and filled-in with soil and rock to be safe.
Your observation of toilet paper in the seepage pit suggests that solids are not being retained in the septic tank where they belong.
If solids are flowing into the seepage pit from the septic tank, that will explain its short life and costly frequent pumping.
The cause could be damaged or missing baffles in the septic tank - something that can be repaired when your new seepage pit is installed.
Our photo (above-left) shows a damaged septic tank baffle that was allowing solid waste to flow out of the septic tank into the absorption system. Details of septic tank tee replacement (baffle replacement) are at SEPTIC TANK TEES.
When your new effluent seepage pit is being installed, look into installing a filter at the outlet from your septic tank; in fact check that the septic tank baffles are intact.
Beyond their design specifications provided here, seepage pits & drywells are also discussed and are contrasted with cesspools at DRYWELL DESIGN & USES or onsite gray water disposal - What are Drywells, What Drywell Maintenance is Needed? How do Drywells Fail?
A cesspool is not a seepage pit, and vice versa, though their construction may be similar. Cesspools receive black water (sewage) directly.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
(June 2, 2014) Paul Hetyei said:
My seepage pit has been tested and has failed the test.The septic company told us they can't repair the pit but must replace the entire septic system. I live in state of NJ. Is this true what thay are telling me
Unfortunately for your wallet, many municipalities won't allow ner / replacement seepage pits. It's because their depth excludes waste treating areobic bacteria from the process. In short, a seepage pit may dispose of liquid effluent but it it not adequately treating it. Instead it contaminates the environment.
(Mar 18, 2015) firstname.lastname@example.org said:
Your article says "Fortunately there are alternative onsite wastewater disposal alternative designs which can handle limited or even zero-space sites, so a simple seepage pit as a destination for blackwater effluent is no longer the only choice for limited-space sites." What alternatives?
At the References section of most of the articles in this series there are citations such as work by Anish Jantrania who has described a completely above-ground wastewater treatment system. Since Anish wrote his text, several companies have begun advertising small wastewater treatment systems suitable for residential properties.
Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia
Questions & answers or comments about designing, installing, using & mainteaining seepage pits for sewage or septic effluent disposal
Try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems: How to Operate & Maintain [ copy on file as /septic/Septic_Operation_USDA.pdf ] - , Equipment Tips, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 8271 1302, 7100 Engineering, 2300 Recreation, September 1982, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfimage/82711302.pdf.
Pennsylvania State Fact Sheets relating to domestic wastewater treatment systems include
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-161, Septic System Failure: Diagnosis and Treatment
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-162, The Soil Media and the Percolation Test
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-l64, Mound Systems for Wastewater Treatment
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-165, Septic Tank-Soil Absorption Systems
Document Sources used for this web page include but are not limited to: Agricultural Fact Sheet #SW-161 "Septic Tank Pumping," by Paul D. Robillard and
Kelli S. Martin. Penn State College of Agriculture - Cooperative Extension, edited and annotated by
Dan Friedman (Thanks: to Bob Mackey for proofreading the original source material.)
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies, Anish R. Jantrania, Mark A. Gross. Anish Jantrania, Ph.D., P.E., M.B.A., is a Consulting Engineer, in Mechanicsville VA, 804-550-0389 (2006). Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF.
Builder's Guide to Wells and Septic Systems, Woodson, R. Dodge: $ 24.95; MCGRAW HILL B; TP;
Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. This comprehensive guide filled with case studies can prevent that. Master plumber R. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction. Chapters cover virtually every aspect of wells and septic systems, including on-site evaluations; site limitations; bidding; soil studies, septic designs, and code-related issues; drilled and dug wells, gravel and pipe, chamber-type, and gravity septic systems; pump stations; common problems with well installation; and remedies for poor septic situations. Woodson also discusses ways to increase profits by avoiding cost overruns.
Country Plumbing: Living with a Septic System, Hartigan, Gerry: $ 9.95; ALAN C HOOD & TP;
Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. But it was written in the early 1980s. A lot has changed since then. In particular, the book doesn't cover any of the newer systems that are used more and more nowadays in some parts of the country -- sand mounds, aeration systems, lagoons, etc.
Design Manuals for Septic Systems
US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual [online copy, free] Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm Onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems,
Richard J Otis, published by the US EPA. Although it's more than 20 years old, this book remains a useful reference for septic system designers.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Program Operations; Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory; (1980)
"International Private Sewage Disposal Code," 1995, BOCA-708-799-2300, ICBO-310-699-0541, SBCCI 205-591-1853, available from those code associations.
"Manual of Policy, Procedures, and Guidelines for Onsite Sewage Systems," Ontario Reg. 374/81, Part VII of the Environmental
Protection Act (Canada), ISBN 0-7743-7303-2, Ministry of the Environment,135 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto Ontario M4V 1P5 Canada $24. CDN.
Manual of Septic Tank Practice, US Public Health Service's 1959.
Onsite Wastewater Disposal Books
Onsite Wastewater Disposal, R. J. Perkins;
Quoting from Amazon: This practical book, co-published with the National Environmental Health Association,
describes the step-by-step procedures needed to avoid common pitfalls in septic system technology.
Valuable in matching the septic system to the site-specific conditions, this useful book will help you install a reliable system in
both suitable and difficult environments. Septic tank installers, planners, state and local regulators, civil and sanitary engineers,
consulting engineers, architects, homeowners, academics, and land developers will find this publication valuable.
Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems, Bennette D. Burks, Mary Margaret Minnis, Hogarth House 1994 - one of the best septic system books around, suffering a bit from small fonts and a weak index. While it contains some material more technical than needed by homeowners, Burks/Minnis book on onsite wastewater treatment systems a very useful reference for both property owners and septic system designers.
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems: How to Operate & Maintain [ copy on file as /septic/Septic_Operation_USDA.pdf ] - , Equipment Tips, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 8271 1302, 7100 Engineering, 2300 Recreation, September 1982, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfimage/82711302.pdf
Septic System Owner's Manual, Lloyd Kahn, Blair Allen, Julie Jones, Shelter Publications, 2000 $14.95 U.S. - easy to understand, well illustrated, one of the best practical references around on septic design basics including some advanced systems; a little short on safety and maintenance. Both new and used (low priced copies are available, and we think the authors are working on an updated edition--DF.
Quoting from one of several Amazon reviews: The basics of septic systems, from underground systems and failures to what the owner can do to promote and maintain a healthy system, is revealed in an excellent guide essential for any who reside on a septic system. Rural residents receive a primer on not only the basics; but how to conduct period inspections and what to do when things go wrong. History also figures into the fine coverage.
Grass is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank, Bombeck, Erma: $ 5.99; FAWCETT; MM;
This septic system classic whose title helps avoid intimidating readers new to septic systems, is available new or used at very low prices.
It's more entertainment than a serious "how to" book on septic systems design, maintenance, or repair. Not recommended -- DF.
US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm
Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook, R. Dodge Woodson. This book is in the upper price range, but is worth the cost for serious septic installers and designers.
Quoting Amazon: Each year, thousands upon thousands of Americans install water wells and septic systems on their properties. But with a maze of codes governing their use along with a host of design requirements that ensure their functionality where can someone turn for comprehensive, one-stop guidance? Enter the Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook from McGraw-Hill. Written in language any property owner can understand yet detailed enough for professionals and technical students this easy-to-use volume delivers the latest techniques and code requirements for designing, building, rehabilitating, and maintaining private water wells and septic systems. Bolstered by a wealth of informative charts, tables, and illustrations, this book delivers: * Current construction, maintenance, and repair methods
* New International Private Sewage Disposal Code
* Up-to-date standards from the American Water Works Association
Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan, $ 18.95; Tab Books 1992. We have found this text very useful for conventional well and septic systems design and maintenance --DF.
Quoting an Amazon description:Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements. He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones