Greywater or Gray Water Systems for Water Conservation, Re-Use, and as Components of Alternative Septic Systems for Difficult Sites
GREYWATER SYSTEMS - CONTENTS: Definition of graywater or "greywater" Graywater systems as components of alternative septic design. Graywater system products & designs - what is "greywater" and how is greywater salvaged for use in watering lawns, gardens, or for purification as drinking water?. How to install & use graywater systems to conserve water or relieve septic system loading: using a greywater distribution or greywater diversion system. Comparison of sources of water for household or garden use besides wells or municipal water supply: rainwater collection, water condensation systems.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website.
This article defines and explains the disposition of greywater, a type of wastewater.
Greywater is wastewater which does not contain sewage, typically coming from building sinks, showers, and laundry facilities.
Graywater systems can reduce the load on or size of a septic system, and gray water separation, filtration, storage, and
piping systems can conserve water, for recycling for various uses such as flushing toilets, landscaping, or irrigation.
This article describes alternative graywater systems and designs, lists gray water (or grey water) products and suppliers,
and compares products, models, and features.
What is Greywater or Graywater and What is Blackwater?
In addition to explaining graywater systems we list and compare other sources of water for use on lawns, gardens, orchards, or for purification as drinking water. We also include links to greywater system references and books. Shown at page top is a clean design for onsite greywater disposal using a sketch from Clivus Multrum (see links below). At left is a sketch of a typical graywater filter.
Other greywater systems include incineration and alternative greywater disposal methods.
The EcoJohn Jr. shown below at our list of product sources uses a low-flush toilet (not a waterless toilet).
This particular toilet is an incinerating unit not a composting toilet.
People who want to construct a greywater system should also see the greywater design books listed below at REFERENCES. Technical review by industry experts has been performed and is ongoing - reviewers welcomed and are also listed and cited.
Definition of Greywater or Graywater: greywater is defined as the liquid wastewater from buildings that excludes septage, that is toilets. So water from a laundry, sink, bathtub, or even a shower all are considered graywater waste.
Definition of Blackwater: blackwater is defined as building wastewater that includes sewage (waste from toilets). Note that if your building drains mix water from sinks, bathtubs, showers, etc. into a common drain with toilet waste (sewage, fecal waste), then all of that water becomes "blackwater" as it leaves the building.
Definition of Greywater Systems: "Greywater Septic Systems" refer to onsite wastewater systems which reduce
the liquid effluent load on a septic system by separating greywater (or graywater) from sinks and showers from
blackwater (black water from toilets.
When we inspect a home which uses a separate drywell to handle greywater
we presume that the owners discovered that their septic system, or at least its leach field, was of limited capacity
Gray water systems may also be used to conserve and recycle water in areas of limited water supply.
The graywater filter basin and graywater filter shown above are discussed at FILTERS SEPTIC & GREYWATER
Gray water is usually water from building drains other than toilets, such as
water from a laundry system, sink, or shower, and effluent from sump pumps.
Other site gray water (or greywater) which is sometimes preserved and used
at a building includes rainwater or roof runoff. Some writers include groundwater in the
greywater category. I disagree, though greywater disposal systems may benefit the environment
by replenishing groundwater.
Greywater does not contain human waste products. Therefore when it is disposed-of on-site,
it does not need to be treated to the same extent as is required for sewage or "black water".
In fact, soil filtration and soil biomat treatment of greywater can produce very clean water for
ultimate discharge into the environment.
Therefore building code requirements for on-site disposal of grey water are less strict.
However in most jurisdictions it is illegal to simply dispose of greywater by dumping it
on the ground surface. Some treatment and filtering such as that provided by a drywell will be required.
For building sites where there is limited space for septic "black water" disposal and treatment,
one can install piping and equipment separate the gray water from black water (human waste) - a
step which reduces the needed size of the septic system. (Space will still be needed for
A second reason that some property owners install graywater handling systems is a shortage
of potable water or the need to conserve and recycle water for re-use.
In dry areas where there are limitations on the water supply, filtering and
treating graywater can permit its use for watering lawns or crops as well as for flushing toilets.
This approach serves two goals,
both disposing of onsite graywater and supplying water for crops or shrubs.
A typical graywater system can save 50 to 100 gallons of water a day, or even more, depending on
the level and types of water usage in a building. Even homes connected to a municipal water supply benefit
from a gray water system as by recycling water for re-use the building owners save on their water bill.
Greywater [grey water, gray water] systems shall be designed upon a flow of 75 gpd/bedroom and meet all the criteria previously discussed for treatment of household wastewater.
[DF NOTE: Grey water is water that does not include sewage, including water from sinks, showers, and laundry facilities.]
Types of Graywater Products and Systems
Here we outline a variety graywater products, systems, and designs used to conserve water, re-use or recycle water, reduce water use, or to store and re-use graywater. Links to in-depth articles about these products and systems are provided below.
Cisterns have been used since prehistoric time to collect and store rain water or water from other sources.
Modern cistern systems use concrete tanks, steel, fiberglass, plastic, or site built tanks to store water for
See WELLS CISTERNS & SPRINGS.
Drywells are used to dispose of un-wanted graywater on-site. There is no provision for water storage
or water re-use.
See DRYWELL DESIGN & USES.
Filters for Greywater are installed at a laundry sink, clothes washer, or at the outlet of
a wastewater tank to filter water for re-use.
See Filters for Septic Tanks & Graywater to protect septic drainfields and reduce drainfield clogging.
Grey Water Irrigation Systems or drip irrigation systems make use of (usually filtered) greywater
to provide water to lawns, plants, or crops. Greywater distribution devices or greywater diversion systems are packaged pump, filter, and controls to collect and distribute greywater from a building into a drip irrigation system.
Some nearly identical terms people use for greywater handling systems include Grey Water Diversion Systems, Grey Water Distribution & Graywater Irrigation Systems.
Low Water Toilets or Low Flush Toilets conserve water by using only a small amount of water to achieve
the flush cycle. Low-Water or Low-Flush toilets work well partnered with graywater systems to both conserve and
See TOILET ALTERNATIVES.
Rainwater Collection Systems provide alternative water supply for use in flushing toilets or
irrigating crops, lawns, or plants. Rainwater collection relieves the load on the potable water supply whether it's from a
local well or from municipal supply piping. Rainwater collection systems range from a simple "rain barrel" to collect
roof runoff, to very large cisterns which store water for onsite use during dry seasons or droughts. Examples are
at PASSIVE SOLAR HOME, LOW COST.
see WATER SOURCE ALTERNATIVES.
Waterless Toilets conserve water by using no water to achieve
the toilet flush cycle. Like composting toilets (see above), waterless toilets work well partnered with
graywater systems to conserve water. Waterless toilets include incinerating toilet models (seelinks listed at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article for more about alternative toilet products & designs.)
See TOILET ALTERNATIVES.
Use of a Greywater System to Reduce Load on Septic System Drainfield
Question: Can I Use a "Packaged" Greywater System to Solve my Septic System Worry?
I purchased a home that had a septic system that is not in great shape. To take some of the strain off of the septic system I decided to put in a graywater system. I was looking at a packaged "ready to go" system that includes a bank of mesh filters and a pump enclosed in a plastic shell.
I wanted to see your thoughts on it.
Can you recommend an inexpensive system? - C.M. (California)
Reply: Compare a Greywater Diversion Device and a Conventional Greywater Drywall
An example of a packaged grey water system is the Aqua2use greywater system that is described by Water Wise Group, its distributor in the U.S., as the "most efficient and advanced greywater diversion device available".
A typical greywater diversion system provides a greywater receiving filter-tank or pumping chamber, a cascade of greywater filter materials and greywater pump itself, perhaps with integrated controls that operate the pump.
Remy Sabiani from Water Wise Group adds: "With its Multi Stage Filtration system, the Aqua2use makes the greywater suitable to use with a drip irrigation system. it also includes two magnetic micro floats that sense the water level, and automatically control the pump."
But without more information about your water usage, site characteristics, and irrigation needs, we are not sure it's what you need. Let's look at some details.
Adding up the Components & Costs of a Greywater Diversion System
At under $650. for a packaged "ready-to-go" greywater system dispersion device itself, that cost is less than the excavation, piping, and installation of a conventional drywell. To that you'll need to add the cost of the greywater drip irrigation piping and its installation, and you may need to add the cost of a larger receiving tank, filter and tank maintenance if your daily surges in water usage are larger than the greywater diversion system's tank and piping can absorb in short intervals.
You also will need to add the cost of changing existing home drain piping to divert graywater from baths and kitchen or at least the laundry system into a separate drain connected to the greywater diversion system.
A graywater system produces water that can be used to irrigate a lawn or garden (but not a vegetable garden) - by filtering greywater and feeding it into a drip irrigation system, and at the same time it relieves the septic system drainfield of having to absorb that same water volume - presuming your drip irrigation tubing is placing the water somewhere else.
Greywater Distribution System Site Factors
Also depending on how you are using your building plumbing system, and other factors like your site size and terrain slope, diameter and length of the drip piping system, the rate at which the graywater treatment pump and filter can accept and push through graywater may be more limited than a conventional drywell that by comparison has no trouble accepting a surge of graywater and disposing of it more slowly into the surrounding soil.
Take a look at your site shape, slope, and piping to see how easily you can separate off graywater draining from sinks, showers, tubs, laundry. You might find that the cost of those plumbing changes is also substantial when you are changing an existing home (as opposed to planning for graywater separation in new construction).
Take a look at the Aqua2Use Pump Curve and you'll see that if there is substantial head pressure (in feet) the flow rate in GPM that the system handles is slowed.
Greywater Distribution & Local Codes
In California where you are located, you can install a graywater system that accepts just water from an individual clothes washing machine without having to obtain a permit. (California Greywater Regulations) That's a simple installation that can reduce the load on your septic system drainfield, similar to using a conventional drywell for the same purpose, but adding filters and a pump and piping to dispose of the graywater on your property.
Watch out: most national and local plumbing codes do not permit discharge of grey water directly onto the ground surface, so simply spraying grey water over the ground like from a lawn sprinkler is probably not going to be accepted in your area. But to complicate this worry further, treated effluent from an aerobic septic treatment unit (ATU) may be allowed to be distributed by above-ground sprinkler systems, for example in some Texas communities. What's the difference? Probably the level of phosphates or detergents found in washing machine grey water.
Considering a Conventional Drywell for Greywater Disposal
But the costs of in house plumbing changes (usually high if you are including graywater from other sinks, tubs, showers) plus cost of the drip line installation (may be high) makes a simpler approach: connect the building laundry sink/washer and maybe dishwasher to a separate conventional drywell, worth considering, especially if you do not need to use the water for irrigation.
All of those costs combined with attention to your starting objective: relieve water load on a drainfield, suggest that you should also consider a simpler and more conventional drywell with an inlet filter to trap lint and large debris.
If your soils have reasonable percolation rate, the drywell will handle a large volume of graywater without going to the added site-wide excavation to put in drip lines. No pumps or electricity are needed if you can drain graywater directly to the drywell by gravity.
Don't Forget to Care for the Septic Tank and Drainfields
Finally, your wish to reduce the load on the septic system by separating graywater presumes that it is the drainfield of your system that is limited, old or failing. But you should also have the septic tank pumped and inspected. It may need baffles, it may be damaged or leaky, it could have an unsafe cover, it may be small and require frequent pumping. And inspect the existing drainfield and D-box to see if there are alternate drainfield lines that can be switched into use, and to confirm that effluent is indeed entering all of the existing drainfield lines - all considerations that are very important in extending the life of the drainfield.
In sum, if you have reason to need and want a drip irrigation system anyway, say for lawn, plantings, or decorative (non-edibles) garden, and especially if you are in an area of limited water supply or drought restrictions, then you could use the graywater system but you'll need to get a more realistic cost estimate by including not just the graywater filter, tank, and pump but also the entire drip irrigation system.
But if all you want is to relieve the liquid load on your drainfield a drywell may be a simpler approach that I recommend you consider. It too can handle larger surges of graywater.
Disinfection Requirements for Grey Water Prior to Re-Use
Winward (2008) points out that grey water filtration and then disinfection can be required before grey water an be re-used in some applications.
Abstract quotation: Adequate disinfection of grey water prior to reuse is important to prevent the potential transmission of disease-causing microorganisms. Chlorine is a widely utilised disinfectant and as such is a leading contender for disinfection of grey water intended for reuse. This study examined the impact of organics and particles on chlorine disinfection of grey water, measured by total coliform inactivation.
The efficacy of disinfection was most closely linked with particle size. Larger particles shielded total coliforms from inactivation and disinfection efficacy decreased with increasing particle size. Blending to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs) following chlorine disinfection revealed that up to 91% of total coliforms in chlorinated grey water were particle associated. The organic concentration of grey water affected chlorine demand but did not influence the disinfection resistance of total coliforms when a free chlorine residual was maintained.
Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and it is recommended that greywater treatment systems target suspended solids removal to ensure removal of PACs prior to disinfection. - Winward (2008)
Grey Water System Codes & Regulations
Graywater System Regulations for various U.S. States
Arizona Greywater Regulations: web search 01/24/2011, original source: http://www.azsos.gov/Public_services/Title_18/18-09.htm
Gelt, J. 2007. Home use of graywater, rainwater conserves water—and may save money. University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center. http://ag.arizona.edu/AZWATER/arroyo/071rain.html
California Greywater Regulations: web search 01/24/2011, original source: http://www.hcd.ca.gov/codes/shl/2007CPC_Graywater_Complete_2-2-10.pdf.
Adaptign and quoting from
the Certificate of Compliance with Final Express Terms Filed with the Secretary of State on January 27, 2010 [http://www.hcd.ca.gov/codes/shl/2007CPC_Graywater_Complete_2-2-10.pdf],
Chapter 16A of the California Plumbing Code establishes the minimum requirements for the installation of graywater systems in occupancies regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD). It is intended to provide guideance to code users while providing flexibility to encourage the use of graywater.
This chapter contains provisions which allow the installation of limited types of graywater systems to be installed without a construction permit. It is not the intent of HCD that the exemption from a construction permit be construed by code users as an exemption from the provisions of this chapter or any other lawfully enacted requirements imposed by a city, county, or city and county, nor does it eliminate the need for persons considering the installation of a graywater system from contacting local authorities to ensure that they are adequately informed about any local requirements or prohibitions.
To READ THE PDFs listed below and then RETURN HERE, USE THE BACK ARROW OF YOUR BROWSER
Finding of Emergency for Proposed Building Standards of the Department of Housing and Community Development regarding the 2007 California Plumbing Code (CPC), California Code of Regulations Title 24, Part 5 (Graywater Standards). [State of emergency in California in 2009 due to drought conditions]
Nine-Point Criteria Analysis of Proposed Emergency Building Standards of the Department of Housing and Community Development Regarding the 2007 California Plumbing Code (CPC), California Code of Regulations Title 24, Part 5, Chapter 15A, Part 1 (Graywater Standards). Nine points that define the process of approval of building standards submitted to the CA Building Standards Commission.
Florida Wastewater Processing & Conservation Practices, Jake Emerson, University of Florida, web search 01/24/2011, original source: www.cce.ufl.edu/wastewater
Louisiana Grawater Regulations, Contact the Louisiana DEQ at www.deq.louisiana.gov
Massachusetts Graywater Regulations: In MA, Greywater is subject to the following (310 CMR 15.262):
Allows greywater systems for new construction: residential facilities need to demonstrate that a fully complying system can be installed.
Reduces the septic tank size to 1000 gallons for residential systems. Septic tanks for commercial and public facilities shall be at least two thirds the size of a septic tank based on the design flows presented in 310 CMR 15.203. An effluent filter system specifically approved by MassDEP and/or the State Board of Plumbers and Gas Fitters for this use may be used in place of the septic tank.
Greywater systems for new construction or increase in flows must comply with the nitrogen loading requirements of 440 gallons per acre.
Provides an allowable nitrogen loading rate for residential facilities of 660 gallons per acre and up to 770 gallons per acre on a case-by-case as determined by the Department for commercial and public facilities provided there is no discharge of blackwater and the compost is disposed off-site.
Allows a 50% reduction in the SAS when a composting toilet is used.
Requires nine inches of cover over the SAS.
For remedial upgrades the groundwater separation may be reduced to 2 feet where the percolation rate is greater than 2 mpi or 3 feet where the percolation rate is 2 mpi or less.
Source: Retrieved 5/15/14, original source: http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/massdep/water/wastewater/ regulatory-provisions-for-compost-toilets-and-greywater.html
Massachusetts also regulates the use of humus / composting toilets
Minnesota statuyes on Graywater: See Minnesota Statutes:
Mionnesota Rules 7080.2204 Graywater Systems found in Minnesota Rules, Chapters 7080-7083, Subsurface Sewage Treatment Programs, Chapter 7080 Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Design Standards for .... Graywater Systems - beginning on p. 54
Minnesota Section 97A.015, Chapter 97A Game and Fish (2013 and earlier)
New Mexico Gray Water Guide, http://www.ose.state.nm.us/water-info/conservation/pdf-manuals/NewMexGWGuide.pdf - NOTE: this is a particularly helpful document, recommended reading - Ed.
web search 01/24/2011, original source: http://www.nmlegis.gov/Sessions/05%20Regular/bills/house/HB0711.pdf
New York Gray water regulations:
"Potentia! Reuses Greywater and Recfaimed IYastewaler in New York State
issued pursuant to Chapter 619 of the Laws of 2005", (2010) http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/water_pdf/waterresue.pdf
McCabe, Shane, "Breaking Down Policy Barriers for Residential Graywaer Installation and Usage in New York City", Pratt Institute/PSPD Environmental Systems Management Capstone, (2013) http://prattpspd.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/McCabeShane_GreywaterCapstone.pdf
Texas Greywater Regulations: Texas Health & Safety Code - Section 341.039. Graywater Standards, web search 01/24/2011, original source: http://law.onecle.com/texas/health/341.039.00.html
Utah: Graywater Systems Design Standards: "R317. Environmental Quality, Water Quality.
Rule R317-401. Graywater Systems.
As in effect on April 1, 2014", www.rules.utah.gov/publicat/code/r317/r317-401.htm
Virginia Graywater Guidelines: a permit issued by the Virginia State Health Commissioner must be obtained before installing and using a gray water system, submitted through your local health department.
Virginia law ENV-663, Gray Water Guidelines, February 1999,
§32.1-248.2 can be read at https://www.vdh.virginia.gov/EnvironmentalHealth/ONSITE/regulations/FormsDocs/documents/2010/ pdfs/Graywater%20Use%20guidelines%20by%20VDH_feb99.pdf
Washington State Graywater Systems Regulations:
The whole Washington State Graywater Regulation law is at
Also see this Washington State graywater study:
Graywater System Products, Greywater Diversion Systems, Pumps, Tanks, Books and Design Specifications For Graywater Systems
Australian supplier of: Greywater systems, Solar power to grid packages, Edwards solar systems, Vulcan compact solar systems, water & solar system pumps & controls, and a wide rage of above ground & under ground water storage tanks: concrete, steel, plastic, modular, and bladder storage tanks.
Eco John describes two incinerating toilet models: EcoJohn Sr - "A highly efficient, waterless toilet that incinerates the waste with propane.
This is a toilet that is ideal for cabins, pool houses, guest rooms, or other remote areas where a conventional toilet is not available or too costly to install."
and EcoJohn Jr Pr1 System "
This is a new revolutionary system that incinerates gray/black water from a holding tank. This system is perfect in areas where a water toilet is needed, but pumping out the waste is problematic or too costly." This grey water and waterless toilet system that includes an incinerator for
graywater that marries with a low-water toilet, the the EcoJohn Jr
which is includes a sewage and graywater incinerating unit. The EcoJohn Jr. uses a low-flush toilet (not a waterless toilet). This is an incinerating unit not a composting toilet and not a chemical toilet system.
Flotender is designed for one or two zone irrigation systems where a portion of the landscape is to be irrigated with greywater. Flotender and GreyLink include nearly identical greywater processors with the only difference being the omission of an auto-fill sensor in the Flotender models.
Image at left illlustrates GreyLink's self-cleaning greywater filter. [Click to enlarge any image]
GreyLink is the "whole landscape greywater irrigation solution." GreyLink's integrated feature set provides advanced reporting and precise control over the irrigation system while delivering substantial water savings. GreyLink is best utilized when the goal is to utilize greywater on an entire medium to large sized landscape.
Filtrific Water Feature Equipment & Greylink Greywater Irrigation Systems
GreyLink™ by Filtrific
13212 NE 16th St.,
Bellevue, WA 98005
Tel: 800.906.0604 - Fax: 425.482.9559
Clivus Multrum greywater systems use a holding chamber, effluent pump,
and an onsite irrigation chamber (see our Gravelless septic system components information) to dispose of graywater.
of a greywater handling and disposal system shown here is from the Clivus Multrum website where more details of system operation are provided.
Where soil conditions and site space permit
onsite graywater disposal this system design can significantly reduce the wastewater load on the septic or "blackwater" system.
Clivus Multrum has long experience with composting toilets (CM was an early designer of composting toilets) and greywater disposal
Contact Us to list your product or service here - if you are
a manufacturer of composting toilets or other alternative wastewater treatment system equipment your product
may be listed at no fee. Website content critique, additions, and suggestions are also invited.
Rainwater Collection Methods to Obtain Additional Water Supply
You may find that you are better off providing a large cistern type storage tank.
Use of large water storage cisterns has been a common practice for thousands of years and continues in modern use with plastic or fiberglass water storage tanks into which rainwater or in some areas even surface runoff may be channeled for future use.
See the rainwater collection and storage tank we show at RAINWATER STORAGE CISTERNS) for collecting and storing as much rainwater as possible when rainy weather occurs.
Graywater Collection Methods to Obtain Additional Water Supply
What most people do, as you will see in our article above, is make use of graywater, usually filtered, sometimes treated.
You might find that rainwater collection in areas where rainfall is plentiful in some seasons, or graywater use, are more economical for your use, and that condensation is more costly to operate and less productive in quantity unless you design a cheap, very large solar condensing operation.
Continue reading at WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
At CISTERN CONSTRUCTION GUIDE we illustrate a combination of rainwater collection and graywater collection, diversion, re-use on a home built in an area of water scarcity.
At a ALTERNATIVE & WATERLESS TOILETS we describe other graywater systems such as toilet tank top mounted sinks that feed graywater directly into the toilet flush tank.
Also see FILTERS SEPTIC & GREYWATER for graywater filters used to protect septic systems from debris in graywater, the first step in making graywater useful for watering grass, trees, plants, etc.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
Does Washington State prohibit graywater systems?
I am having issues with my septic system and the service that has started my job is telling me that in Washington State it is a state law that we cannot use Grey Water systems. Do you happen to know anything about that? I am very interested in adding a system like yours for my home. Please let me know. Thank you - D.W. 5/15/2014
Washington State does not prohibit graywater re-use but does specify guidelines and the state allows local jurisdictions to enforce more strict regulation. Indeed the state has published various studies and guidelines.
Quoting from your state's own publications
Chapter 246-274 WAC sets requirements for using greywater for subsurface irrigation. The rule took effect on July 31, 2011. Local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have three years to implement it. (LHJs may adopt more stringent requirements than those in the state rule.) However, if they are unable to adjust resources to implement and enforce this chapter, the provisions of chapter 246-272A WAC shall continue to apply to greywater reuse for subsurface irrigation. Check with your LHJ to learn if greywater reuse under chapter 246-274 WAC is allowed or ask them how to support that effort if it is not allowed yet.
Watch out: Washington State authorities (and the WA law), in discussing the re-use of graywater and the design of graywater systems does make clear that installing a graywater re-use sysem does not exclude septic systems (onsite wastewater disposal systems or soakawy beds or soakpits depending on where you live) from meeting other state requirements for those systems.
In other words, if your septic system needs a new drainfield, it will still need one after installing a graywater re-use system. However on occasion one can extend the life of a septic drainfield by reducing the water load on it by routing graywater elsewhere.
Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
American Rainwater Cachment Systems Association (ARCSA),
823 Congress Avenue, Suite 230, Austin, TX 78701, 512-617-6528 Email: email@example.com. Quoting from the association's website:
The Mission of the American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association
is to promote sustainable rainwater harvesting practices
to help solve potable, non-potable, stormwater and energy challenges throughout the world.
The American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that was founded in 1994 by Dr. Hari J. Krishna in Austin, Texas, to promote rainwater catchment systems in the United States. Our memberships consist of professionals working in city, state, and federal government, academia, manufacturers and suppliers of rainwater harvesting equipment, consultants, and other interested individuals. Membership is not limited to the United States, and we encourage all rainwater harvesting enthusiasts to join our organization. Local responsibilities are often delegated to ARCSA's Regional Representatives.
Winward, Gideon P., Lisa M. Avery, Tom Stephenson, and Bruce Jefferson. "Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: Effect of organics and particles." Water research 42, no. 1 (2008): 483-491.
Cawley, William E., and Basil W. Mercer. "Water recycle system." U.S. Patent 4,812,237, issued March 14, 1989.
Abstract: A closed water purification and recycle system processes domestic wastewater to produce potable water for cooking, drinking and dishwashing and water suitable for general household use, such as washing clothes and personal hygiene. The system consists of septic tanks, a biological sand filter, an ultrafilter, a disinfection unit, pumps, valves, water quality and quantity sensors to monitor and control the process. The system also includes an incinerator toilet to eliminate the need for toilet flush water. Water for cooking, drinking and dishwashing is produced by a still using some of the recycled water for feed. The quality of the recycled water is monitored to assure the product water is suitable for the intended uses. Water thus produced is stored until reused. The system will be automatically shut down if the final product water quality does not meet specifications. Blowdown containing concentrated salts from the still is evaporated and incinerated in the incinerator toilet to maintain a satisfactory concentration of salts in the recycled water. The system equipment is designed and sized to allow unattended operation between inspections, scheduled periodically, at which time routine maintenance is performed and makeup water is added to the system to replace water lost to evaporation.
Mark Cramer Inspection Services Mark Cramer, Tampa Florida, Mr. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator. Mr. Cramer serves on the ASHI Home Inspection Standards. Contact Mark Cramer at: 727-595-4211 mark@BestTampaInspector.com
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060. He is also a contributor to InspectApedia.com in several technical areas such as plumbing and appliances (dryer vents). Contact Mr. Cranor at 804-747-7747 or by Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hankey and Brown home inspectors, Eden Prairie, MN, technical review by Roger Hankey, prior chairman, Standards Committee, American Society of Home Inspectors - ASHI. 952 829-0044 - hankeyandbrown.com 11/06
Arlene Puentes, a licensed home inspector, educator, and building failures researcher in Kingston, NY. 11/29/06
"Microbial Problems in Treated Water Storage Tanks", Smith, C., and G. Burlingame. 1994. In Proc. of the 1994 Annual AWWA Conference. Denver, Colo.: AWWA.
Quality of Water in Storage Grayman, W.M. and G.J. Kirmeyer. 2000. "Protecting Your Storage Tank - An Analysis of Long- and Short-Term Options", Jacobs, K.A. 2000. In Proc. of the AWWA Infrastructure Conference. Denver, Colo.: AWWA.
Septic System Owner's Manual, Lloyd Kahn, Blair Allen, Julie Jones, Shelter Publications; (February 1, 2007), ISBN-10: 0936070404, ISBN-13: 978-0936070407 More than 28 million households have septic systems, but few homeowners know how they operate or how to maintain them. This clearly written, illustrated guide addresses that need, emphasizing conventional septic systems powered by gravity flow, filtering through soil, and the natural soil organisms that purify sewage. The book discusses maintenance, what to do if things go wrong, and alternative systems such as mounds and sand filters. Additional chapters cover graywater systems, composting toilets, and a unique history of water-borne waste disposal. This expanded edition contains three new chapters.
Tank Construction Procedures Steve Burgess, Edoret Region Company P.O. Box 6495, Eldoret, Kenya. Fax 254-321-62472. email@example.com.
Technology and Developing Countries, Practical Applications, Theoretical Issues, (Science, Technology, & Development), Routeledge. The relationship between technology and development is explored by economists, policy analysts and other experts. The adoption of technology is studied in five main areas agriculture, energy, infrastructure, the introduction of technology and the success and constraints of technological diffusion as a whole. This volume also examines the technology transfer between North and South from a perspective of training, environmental impact and aid dependency. The emphasis is not placed simply on finding problems, but ways forward are examined. By bringing together both practical and intellectual analysis, this collection signposts future directions in the technologydevelopment relationship.
Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan. McGraw-Hill Professional, 1991. Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements. He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites. - DF note: lacks detail on septic systems.
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems: How to Operate & Maintain [ copy on file as /septic/Septic_Operation_USDA.pdf ] - , Equipment Tips, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 8271 1302, 7100 Engineering, 2300 Recreation, September 1982, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfimage/82711302.pdf.
Pennsylvania State Fact Sheets relating to domestic wastewater treatment systems include
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-161, Septic System Failure: Diagnosis and Treatment
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-162, The Soil Media and the Percolation Test
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-l64, Mound Systems for Wastewater Treatment
Pennsylvania State Wastewater Treatment Fact Sheet SW-165, Septic Tank-Soil Absorption Systems
Document Sources used for this web page include but are not limited to: Agricultural Fact Sheet #SW-161 "Septic Tank Pumping," by Paul D. Robillard and
Kelli S. Martin. Penn State College of Agriculture - Cooperative Extension, edited and annotated by
Dan Friedman (Thanks: to Bob Mackey for proofreading the original source material.)
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones