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ROOFING INSPECTION & REPAIR
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Green House or Solarium Roof Leaks
HEAT TAPES & CABLES on Roofs for Ice Dams
ICE DAM PREVENTION
MASONITE WOODRUF FIBERBOARD ROOFING
NOISE CONTROL for ROOFS
PLASTIC ROOFING TYPES
PVC, EPDM, RUBBER ROOFING
ROOF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES - PHOTO GUIDE
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ROOF INSPECTION SAFETY & LIMITS
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ROOF REPLACEMENT SNAFUs
ROOFING FELT UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREMENTS
ROOFING MATERIALS, Age, Types
SADDLE CONSTRUCTION at CHIMNEYS
SNOW GUARDS & SNOW BRAKES
STANDARDS for ROOFING
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
TEST LABS - ROOF SHINGLE
TREES & SHRUBS, TRIM OFF BUILDING
TRUSSES, Floor & Roof
UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREMENTS on ROOFS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
WALK-ON ROOF SURFACES
WARRANTIES for ROOF SHINGLES
WORKMANSHIP & ROOF DAMAGE
Clay roofing tile fastening methods: this article explains how clay tiles are secured to the roof deck.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2013 InspectAPedia.com, All Rights Reserved. Author Daniel Friedman.
The preferred method of attachment depends on the type of tile, climate conditions, and slope of the roof.
Loose Laid Clay Tile Roofs
For standard concrete tiles with lugs set on battens, building codes still allow tiles to be laid loose at slopes less than 5:12 (except for one nail per tile within 36 inches of hips, ridges, eaves, or rakes). Loose-laid tiles are not allowed, however, in snow regions, areas subject to high winds, or with tiles weighing less than 9 pounds per square foot installed.
Selection of Nails Used on Clay Tile Roofs
Nails are the least expensive and most common method for attaching concrete and clay tiles. Tiles can be nailed either directly into the roof sheathing or tiles with lugs can be nailed to battens. Corrosion-resistant nails must be minimum 11 gauge, with 5/16 -inch heads, and long enough to penetrate the sheathing by 3/4 inch—typically 8d nails.
Ring-shank nails or hot-dipped galvanized nails hold better than smooth-shank nails in areas subject to heavy winds. Whether driven by hand or pneumatic nailers, nails should be driven so heads lightly touch the tile but not so tight as to risk cracking tiles. Because of the longevity of a tile roof, some contractors use copper or stainless-steel roofing nails. No. 8 or 9 stainless-steel or brass screws also work well and are sometimes used in high-wind regions.
Most tiles have two prepunched nail holes. On curved tiles, use the hole closest to the deck surface unless a nail there would penetrate a critical flashing. The other hole is also used for cut tiles or applications requiring two nails. For example, all flat, non interlocking tiles require two nails. And in snow regions, codes require two nails per tile for all types and slopes. Otherwise follow the guidelines in Table 2-9 above or the manufacturer’s guidelines if they are more stringent.
Also see CLAY TILE WIND & SEISMIC CONNECTORS where we describe special connections used for clay tiles on roofs in high wind, hurricane, or seismic areas.
Tile Roof Fastener Options from NRCA
In the 1990's NRCA's Thomas Smith noted that a paper published in the Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Roofing Technology expressed concern for the lack of conservative roofing industry guidelines for the components of tile roofing systems in the U.S. The recommendations in the then-current NRCA Steep Roofing and Waterproofing Manual indeed included recommendations for tile roof underlayment, fasteners, and metal flashings, but Smith noted that these were "non-conservative" for many areas in the United States (and other locations of challenging weather).
Smith posed some interim fastener options to improve the life of tile roof systems, including
Note: Bliss's fastener suggestions above incorporate and update this historical data. - Ed.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about how clay tiles are fastened to the roof surface
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