Water Softener Settings
Guide to Water Softener Controls, Adjustments & Maintenance
SOFTENER ADJUSTMENT & CONTROLS - CONTENTS: How to adjust a home water softener / water conditioner control settings. The four basic adjustments required on every water conditioner; six detailed water softener settings.
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Water Softener Operating & Maintenance Instructions:
How to set & adjust a water softener or water conditioner.
Here we provide an owner's guide to water softener controls, what they are, what they do, how to set them - for water softener or water conditioner maintenance, including water softener adjustment of the regeneration or backwash cycle frequency and the water softener salt dose.
We explain the salt dose, regen cycle, hardness setting, and brine tank float level adjustment. We also discuss setting the water softener timer or clock.
Homeowner's Guide to Water Softener Settings & Adjustments - how to set the water softener controls
How to set the softener regeneration cycle frequency. Recommended water softener settings if you don't have other information; Salt dose table for water conditioners; salt dial setting procedure. How to calculate the required salt dose; how to adjust the brine tank float; how to set the water softener clock; how to set electronic controls on a water softener.
Four Basic Adjustments or Tasks Necessary to Use a Water Softener
Because the hardness and volume of water used both vary from one building to another, a water softener or water conditioner includes controls that allow the installer or building occupants to adjust the system to work properly.
Water conditioner or water softener controls typically include either analog-type dials with pins, buttons, or levers (control at left)( or electronic controls operated by pushbuttons (discussed later in this article at ELECTRONIC WATER SOFTENER CONTROLS).
The two principal adjustments on any water softener, whether they are done manually by an owner or automagically by water hardness sensors, are listed below, followed by two basic maintenance chores.
Set the Salt Dose: The amount of salt (or salty water) that must be run through the water conditioner during each regeneration cycle or "backwash" cycle.
See WATER SOFTENER SALT DOSE SETTING for details.
Add salt: because a water conditioner (or water softener) consumes salt during each regeneration or backwash cycle, you will need to buy and add salt to the brine tank from time to time. You can determine when to add salt by visual inspection - salt gets low inside the brine tank, or you can if you prefer hire a water softener maintenance company who will deliver and install the salt for you.
Clean the Water Conditioner: As we explain at SOFTENER CLEANING & SANITIZING, water softener brine tanks also need to be emptied and cleaned from time to time.
Question: how to use the pins and dial in the photograph above?
[Shown just above is ] exactly the control my softener has, but I cannot find instructions on how to set the pins on the dial that say 2 minutes per pin, or get repair parts.
My softener is an NPS AquAmerica Model 92083. Mfgr is/was in Norton, Ohio and was made in about 1995.
Can you help please? - Anonymous by private email 2017/01/22
That dial is controlling the regen cycle duration - a way of adjusting the softener to accord with the hardness of your water. You'd move the pins to a higher number to obtain a longer regen time if the water remains hard after treatment - and presuming all else is working normally. I attach a water softener manual [PDF document] that may not be an exact match but should be helpful. Found at Aqua Systems 800 n447 5582 http://www.ilovemywater.com/Contact-Aqua-Systems.aspx
How to Set the Water Softener Clock & Regeneration Cycle Frequency
Because water conditioners and their controls vary among manufacturers and models, below we discuss several methods for determining and actually making the necessary settings or adjustments on this equipment. And there is a third maintenance task for building owners who have a water conditioner: setting the clock
Guide to Setting the water softener controls: Our photo above shows the standard controls on a water softener, permitting the user to specify the days on which a recharge/backwash cycle will occur, the salt dose, and also the time of day.
Set the water softener clock: Setting the clock on the water softener control is important for two reasons: first, you won't be bothered by hearing it run if it recycles when you are asleep or out of the home, and second, since the water softener recharge cycle uses plenty of water, it's a good idea to send that discharge to the septic system at a time when other plumbing fixtures are not in use - thus spreading the wastewater load on the septic system out over a longer period.
Set the clock dial to the accurate time of day and set the water softener regeneration time to an hour when the building occupants are least likely to be using water, such as at 2AM - the standard factory pre-set regeneration hour. On units with a clock dial, the silver colored section corresponds to daytime hours and the black colored portion corresponds to night time hours.
Usually the "clock dial" is adjusted by lifting it up and turning it to the proper position, or turning a dial to line up the correct hour of the day with an indicator arrow (lower right in our photo).
Question: Where is the "Clock" on my water softener and how do I set it?
Extremely well written and done !! Thank you.
But, i still can not identify my softener system or control clock. It was here when i bought the house. Is there anywhere some pictures identifying different controllers. email@example.com
Bugrubert, you are welcome to send me photos of the equipment and all labels you can find including inside the control cover - use the email address found at the CONTACT link shown at the top, left, and bottom of all of our web pages.
On dial type (non LED or LCD type display) water softeners or conditioners, you may not see a dial that looks like a clock with hands. In the water conditioner control photos below, from left to right,
The clock on this water conditioner control is set by turning the knob marked "Time of Day" that has numbers on it so that the current AM or PM hour is opposite the arrow point (lower right corner of our first photo at below left). You will see a similar "Time Set" button on Autotrol water conditioners.
The clock on the next water conditioner control (below right) is set by turning the AM (white area) or PM (black area) hour to be opposite the black pointer to which our red arrow is pointing.
On an electronic display water softener such as the Autotrol 460i, for example, to set the time of day you may have to set a jumper next to the word "TIME" on the control (blue arrow) and then push the "Time Set" button (red arrow) until the correct AM and PM time of day is indicated on an LED display.
Water Softener Control Adjustment Procedure Details - 6 Easy Steps to Soft Water
Measure the hardness of your water using a test kit or by asking a service tech to do it for you.
The number you get should be expressed in either GPG (grains of hardness per gallon of water) or in PPM (parts per million of minerals in your water)
Our photo (left) illustrates a simple water hardness test that also measures other water parameters.
Adjust the water softener "Hardness" setting. Adjust the water softener "hardness" to the same number as the hardness that you measured for your own water supply. For example if you measured your water hardness as 30 grains per gallon (30 GPG), then the "hardness" setting will be "30". If your water hardness was measured in parts per million (PPM),
Divide PPM by 17.1 to get hardness in grains per gallon: PPM / 17.1 = GPG
Or to convert from hardness in PPM to hardness in grains per gallon,
Multiply grains per gallon GPG by 17.1 to get hardness in PPM: GPG x 17.1 = PPM
Set the water softener "Capacity": Adjust the water softener capacity setting according to your manual and our example discussed earlier. Typically capacity for a water softener is a number from 1 to 99 kilograins. Suppose your water conditioner capacity setting is adjusted to 30 kilograins (1st column at left side of the salt dose able)
Determine softener treatment tank size: Let's assume your water softener treatment tank is a 1-cubic foot capacity unit. Notice the table column under 1.0 Ft3. (4th column from left in the water softener salt dose table). The water softener tank size is it's resin volume in cubic feet, typically a number between 0.75 cu ft and 2.0 cu ft.
Read the recommended salt dose in pounds: reading across from 30 kilograins of hardness in column 1 to our 4th column (the 1 cubic foot softener size) we see that the manufacturer recommends 15 pounds of salt.
Set the salt dose - the brine control: set the dial to 15 pounds of salt. If your equipment is in the U.K., Australia, New Zealand, Canada, or another country that measures and marks equipment using the metric system your salt dose will be measured in kilograms or kg of salt. If you need to convert pounds to kilograms or kg, divide pounds by 2.2. More examples of how to determine and set the water softener salt dose can be read at What Settings Should I Use on My Water Softener?
Watch out: follow the instructions in the right maintenance manual for your own equipment. And in the salt dose table, don't confuse kg of salt (numbers in the table body) with kilograins of water hardness (numbers in table column 1).
Also, remember this setting is adjusting only the salt dose, not the frequency of regeneration cycle.
Another Approach to Water Conditioner Settings for Salt Dose & Regeneration Frequency
If you don't have a manual and can't find instructions for your unit, (and don't want to call a qualified service technician) leave the salt dose alone, then send the softener through a regeneration cycle and measure the hardness of your water again.
Then monitor water hardness on the days between your regen cycle and the next automatic regen cycle, during a period of your best guess at average water quantity use. If your water shows unacceptable hardness before another softener regen, you'll need to increase the frequency of regeneration cycle.
Typical frequencies for manually-set water softener regeneration as a starting point are are once a week, once every 3 or 4 days, every other day, and daily. If you are running the system daily and water is still too hard you may need to increase the salt dose. But don't overdo the salt or you may have salty water - a health and aesthetic issue.
Subjective judgment of water hardness:
It's best to measure the hardness of your water - kits are inexpensive or some services will perform the test at no charge.
If you can't get a lather using shampoo on your head in the shower, either you're bald, or the water is still pretty hard. If your water feels slimy and you have trouble rinsing off soap, your water might be more soft than necessary (though other problems can also cause this symptom).
Water Softener or Water Equipment Adjustment Tip: Most water treatment companies will be glad to send a representative to your building to test water hardness (or other contaminants) and to advise you on the condition and settings of the water treatment equipment you have in place, or to suggest alternatives if you are shopping.
Regeneration Cycle Frequency on Water Softeners
How Often does the Water Softener Need to Run a Backwash & Regeneration or "Recharge" Cycle?
Your water softener manufacturer will provide a Salt Dosage/Frequency
Chart along with the softener's installation and maintenance instructions.
A water softener recharge frequency and salt dose example is provided by Culligan:, "If four individuals live in the household, and
the water has a total hardness of 18 grains per gallon, the salt
dosage per recharge for the water conditioner will be 5 pounds
(2.5 kg) and the recharge frequency will be 3 (or every 2
days). Monthly salt usage can be estimated, using these
figures, at about 75 pounds (37.5 kg).
IBC in Australia provides this simple formula that can calculate the regeneration cycle for a water softener if you know all of the required parameters:
Number of Days Between Water Softener Regeneration Cycles = N
Maximum capacity of the treatment tank in grams of CaCO3 or NaCL = C
Volume of water passing through the treatment tank per day = Q (Kiloliters per day) or (Gallons per day)
Hardness of the incoming water measured in micrograms/Liter (mg/L) or in PPM = H
N = C / (H x Q)
This should be taken only as a rough calculation - set your backwash frequency to this number of days or less.
Water softener regeneration cycle frequency vs. cycle duration time
Above we discussed the frequency of water softener regeneration cycles: how often the equipment should run through a regeneration cycle.
Frequency of water softner regeneration is not the same question as duration of the regeneration cycle.
So What Settings Should I Use on My Water Softener?
How to Set the Water Softener Salt Dose
Question: What salt dose should I use on my water softener?
I have a Autotrol 460i water softer. The water hardness going into my house measures 10. What settings do I need set in order to create water hardness setting out of my faucets to read around 1or 2? - Walter Schwartz
Reply: The salt dose for your water conditioner depends on some variables. Here is an example and a water softener salt dose table for reference
Some water conditioners (water softeners) automagically track water quantity usage and water hardness and adjust themselves without you having to do a thing. But lots of models require a manual adjustment based on water hardness and water quantity used.
The necessary water softener settings depend not just on water hardness but on your brand and model of water softener equipment and how much water you are using.
Here are some remarks about setting the salt dose and regen frequency on a water softener:
Most water softener owners manuals include a table of recommended settings. Start there. If you don't have an owner's manual call the manufacturer's tech service and give them the model number and ask for a manual as well as their setting advice.
Water Conditioner Hardness Setting: Move the jumper to the set of pins next to the word
HARDNESS (Figure 11). Press the black TIME SET
button until the correct hardness is displayed. The
hardness range is from 1 to 99 grains per gallon.
To change water hardness stated in parts per million
(PPM) to grains per gallon (GPG) use this formula:
Parts per Million / 17.1 = Grains per Gallon
Water Conditioner Capacity Setting: Move the jumper to the set of pins next to the word
CAPACITY (Figure 12). Press the black TIME SET
button until the correct capacity value is displayed. The capacity range is 1 to 99 kilograins. Refer to the Suggested Salt Dial Settings table [shown below].
Return the jumper to the top set of pins next to the
word TIME and replace the access door. The next three
sets of pins are used for factory testing and are not
used in normal operation. The jumper must NOT be left on any pins other than the top pair next to the word TIME. Otherwise, the unit may not function.
Note: A spare jumper is located on the bottom set of pins.
In the event that the hardness or capacity setting must be changed, simply follow the appropriate steps described above.
Like some other advanced water conditioners on the market, the control module for the Autotrol water softener includes a microprocessor that monitors your level of water usage, adjusting the regeneration cycle accordingly.
How to Set the Water Softener Salt Dosage
Complete details about adjusting the water softener salt dose are found in these separate explanations:
Excerpts summarizing water softener salt use are just below.
Water softener brine control or salt dose and regeneration cycle frequency as well as other settings vary depending on the type of water softener control on your machine. But the basic concept remains the same:
The harder your incoming water supply is, the larger is the salt dose that will be needed to regenerate the water softener itself.
The larger the water quantity you use in your home, the more often the water softener will need to run through a regeneration cycle.
The Brine Control: how to set the water softener salt dose: Your water softener's instructions (available from the manufacturer or from a local water softener service company) will tell you what salt dosage to set on the softener as a function of how many grains of hardness your water supply shows.
The salt dose scale on a typical water softener indicates the number of pounds of salt to be used in each water softener recharge cycle.
Shown at left, the pointer knob is set to between 14 and 15 pounds of salt on an Autotrol salt dose control (a high setting by the way).
[Click to enlarge any image]
Set the water softener recharge frequency: your water softener's instructions will tell you how often the system should be recharged as a function of your estimated daily water usage in gallons.
At left is a typical water softener recharge frequency chart for a Culligan System 19 or 23 Water Conditioner.
[Click to enlarge any image or table]
Typically a water softener control includes a seven-day recharge frequency dial with tabs that can be pushed-in or pulled out to cause the water softener to use a recharge cycle on that day. Harder water and higher quantity of water usage means more frequent recharge cycling is needed.
If your water softener has an automatic sensor of the hardness of water leaving the treatment tank (such as the Culligan Soft-Minder®), it can decide for itself when a recharge or regeneration cycle is needed.
Water Softener Electronic Control Setting Procedure
Question: How do I set the Water Softener Controls on a Sears Kenmore Electronic Unit?
My water conditioner is a Kenmore model that uses an electronic control rather than dials, levers and pins. How do I set that control?
To set a Kenmore water conditioner electronic control try these basic steps. If these instructions don't match your unit contact us by email with your brand and model number and we'll help you find those instructions. 
Select button: Find the Hardness Setting by pressing the Select Button on your water conditioner control box until you see the control display flash the word Hardness and a number. The number is the current hardness setting of your equipment.
Choose the control setting number: The default setting on a typical Kenmore water softener with this control type is 25. The electronic control setting number to which you should set the electronic control on your water conditioner is either
Grains per gallon of hardness (if your system does not include an iron treatment component)
Control Setting Number calculated as follows:
For a typical Kenmore water conditioner instructions indicate
Hardness Number = GPG of hardness (grains per gallon of hardness)
Iron Number = Iron ppm x 5
Control setting = Hardness Number + Iron Number
If you don't know what hardness number you want, see our discussion about hardness numbers in the article above or use the test kits we describe to determine the hardness of your water supply. For Kenmore customers Sears offers a free water hardness and water iron test.
Arrow Button: press the Up or Down buttons to change the current Control Setting Number to the setting you want
To continue with other settings on this type of machine,
Select button: press the Select Button again to show Recharge Time . T
Choose the Recharge Time of Day: this setting determines the time of day at which the system will run through a regeneration cycle. The factory default is 2:00 AM - which we recommend unless you are often using building water at that hour. Use the up or down arrows to change the recharge time in one-hour increments.
To continue with other settings on this type of machine,
Select Button: press the Select button again to show Set Salt Level
Choose the Current Brine Tank Salt Level: open the brine tank, note the yellow sticker that has numbers 0-8 imprinted on it. Choose the salt level to match the highest number on the decal to which the salt is actually present in the brine tank. This setting tells the water softener how much salt is in the brine tank and thus will allow the equipment to tell you (on its display) when the salt level is low - when you need to add more salt to the system.
Select Button: use the Select Button once more to finish up setting the Kenmore water softener control by pressing it again to show the current time of day.
Set the water softener clock to correct time of day: if the clock is not displaying the correct time, you can also use the Select Button to choose Set Time of Day, then set the correct time using the up and down buttons.
As we detail at DETECT HARD WATER, it's easy to see if your water softener is doing anything by using one of several water hardness tests including the strips shown at left. Or you may suspect a problem if you are no longer able to get your shampoo to lather when taking a shower.
At SALT OR WATER INTO SEPTIC we discuss the importance of using the proper settings that control water softener operation, and performing proper water softener maintenance will assure that the water softener is effective in treating hard water, it will avoid wasting water, and if a private septic system is installed it will significantly reduce the chances that a septic system will be damaged by flooding or by excessive salt due to water softener malfunction.
At REDUCE IMPACT of SOFTENER on SEPTIC we provide suggestions for reducing the impact of water softeners on septic systems. Below we provide the details of how to adjust and maintain a residential or light commercial water softener for proper operation.
Continue reading at SOFTENER CLEANING & SANITIZING or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Questions & answers or comments about problems with the operation of aerobic septic systems
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
 "Commercial Water Softener Installation and Operating Instructions", IBC Filtration & Water Treatment Products (Australia) for commercial, industrial and residential application www.ibcwater.com.au (07) 3219 2233
 Culligan Mark 10 Water Softener 1994-1998 Installation and Operating Instructions (covering models manufactured after 1995) (1-96) 01881948.pdf available from www.culligan.com
 "Non electric water softener,
Installation and Operating Instructions", IBC Filtration & Water Treatment Products (Australia), op.cit.
 North Dakota Standards for Water Softeners, North Dakota General Authority Law, Chapter 62-04-08, Water Softener Units http://www.legis.nd.gov/information/acdata/pdf/62-04-08.pdf. "The objective of this chapter is to provide a standard of quality, capacity,
and performance for water softener units. Water softener performance
is to be based upon referee tests procedures described in section
 Water Hardness Table used in this article series originated with but was edited and added to from http://www.bestfish.com/tips/110598.html and also from http://www.water-research.net/hardness.htm
 "Water Softener Twin Tank Installation and Operating Instructions", IBC Filtration & Water Treatment Products (Australia), op.cit.
 Water Softeners, CMHC, Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/wawa/wawa_005.cfm - October 2008. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation acknowledges the contribution of Health Canada to the development of this document. For further questions regarding water treatment and water quality, contact Health Canada at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 613-957-2991 or 1-866-225-0709.
 Watts Industries of North Andover, Mass., provides its ZRO-4 under counter system intended to target the independent water dealer market.
 Thanks to reader M.P. for discussing the requirement to adjust the float level in water softener brine tanks - January 2011
 Kinetico Model 50 Water Conditioner, 2002, Kinetico Home Water Systems, 10845 Kinsman Road
Newbury, Ohio 44065
USA, Tel: 800-944-9283. Kinetico also produces the AquaKinetic Series and Powerline Series Water Softeners.
 Treatment Systems for Household Water Supplies, Iron and manganese Removal, Bruce Seelig, Water Quality Specialist, North Dakota Extension Service
Russell Derickson, Extension Associate in Water and Natural Resources, South Dakota Extension Service
Fred Bergsrud, Water Quality Coordinator, Minnesota Extension Service, AE-1030, County Commissions, North Dakota State University and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Web search 04/16/2012, original source: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/h2oqual/watsys/ae1030w.htm [copy on file as /Water/Iron_Manganese_Removal_NDSU.pdf]
 Averbeck, David, Mike Catanzaro, Jason Davis, Andrew Warnes, "Softener Discharge Versus Aerobic Wastewater Treatment Units", Water Conditioning & Purification, Feb. 2010
copy on file as Water_Softener_Vs_Septic_Averbeck.pdf ]
Alhajjar, Bashar Jamil, 1981, The Effects of Electrolyte Concentration, Cation Adsorption Ratio, and the Septic Tank Effluent Composition on Hydraulic Properties of Natural Swelling Soil Systems, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Corey, R.B., and Tyler, E.J., 1978, Potential Effects of Water Softener Use on Septic Tank Soil Absorption On-Site Waste Water Systems, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Corey, R.B., Tyler, E.J. and Olotu, M.U., 1978. Effects of Water Softener Use
on the Permeability of Septic Tank Seepage Fields. Proceedings of the Second
National Home Sewage Treatment Symposium. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
DalTech Dalhousie University. 2001. The Effect of Softeners on Onsite
Wastewater Systems, Centre for Water Resources Studies, On-Site Applied
Research Program, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2001.
Deal, K, 1998. Analysis of Septic System Failure in Gallatin County Montana,
MSU Extension Service.
Etzel, J.E., 1978. Softener Brines Do Not Harm Household Sewage Systems,
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
Isaacs, W.P., and Stockton, G.R., 1981. Softened Water Energy Savings
Study Controlled Experimental Testing Program on Household Water Heaters,
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.
Great Lakes Upper Mississippi River Board of State Sanitary Engineers,
1980. Recommended Standards for Individual Sewage Systems.
Renn, C.E., Effects of Salts on Waste Treatment Systems, Johns Hopkins
Tedrow, J.C.F., 1997. The Effect of Sodium Discharge from Water Softeners
into the Septic Fields of New Jersey, Rutgers University.
NSF International, 1978. The Effect of Home Water Softener Waste Regeneration
Brines on Individual Aerobic Treatment Plants.
Michaud, C.F., 2005. “What’s the Big Stick on Septic Discharge?”,
WC&P Magazine, May 2005.
National Small Flows Clearinghouse, Pipeline, Winter 2001.
Water Quality Association. 1976. Effects of Backwash Water and Regeneration
Wastes from Household Water Conditioning Equipment on Private
Sewage Disposal Systems.
15. Wood, F.O., The Results of Putting Brine Effluent Into a Septic Tank Drainage System, Salt Institute, Alexandria, VA, 1984.
 Kenmore Water Softener Use & Care Guide, Model 635.383000 (with a high flow valve), retrieved 2/14/2013, original source: http://c.sears.com/assets/own/896150e.pdf [ copy on file as Kenmore_Softener_No.625.383_Manual.pdf ]
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies, Anish R. Jantrania, Mark A. Gross. Anish Jantrania, Ph.D., P.E., M.B.A., is a Consulting Engineer, in Mechanicsville VA, 804-550-0389 (2006). Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF.
Builder's Guide to Wells and Septic Systems, Woodson, R. Dodge: $ 24.95; MCGRAW HILL B; TP;
Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. This comprehensive guide filled with case studies can prevent that. Master plumber R. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction. Chapters cover virtually every aspect of wells and septic systems, including on-site evaluations; site limitations; bidding; soil studies, septic designs, and code-related issues; drilled and dug wells, gravel and pipe, chamber-type, and gravity septic systems; pump stations; common problems with well installation; and remedies for poor septic situations. Woodson also discusses ways to increase profits by avoiding cost overruns.
Country Plumbing: Living with a Septic System, Hartigan, Gerry: $ 9.95; ALAN C HOOD & TP;
Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. But it was written in the early 1980s. A lot has changed since then. In particular, the book doesn't cover any of the newer systems that are used more and more nowadays in some parts of the country -- sand mounds, aeration systems, lagoons, etc.
Design Manuals for Septic Systems
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The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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