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BACKUP PREVENTION, SEPTIC
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BATH & KITCHEN DESIGN GUIDE
CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS in WATER
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CHLORINE IN DRINKING WATER
CLOGGED DRAIN DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
DEBRIS in WATER SUPPLY, Water Heater
DEPTH of SEPTIC TANK
DRAIN & SEWER PIPING
FAUCETS & CONTROLS, KITCHEN & BATH
FAUCETS, OUTDOOR HOSE BIBBS
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOOR DRAIN / TRAP ODORS
FLUSHOMETER VALVES for TOILETS URINALS
GAS PIPING, VALVES, CONTROLS
GALVANIC SCALE & METAL CORROSION
HARD WATER - SOFTENERS
HEAT TAPES, Heat, Insulation prevent Freeze-Up
LEAD POISONING HAZARDS GUIDE
LEAD IN DRINKING WATER, HOW to REDUCE
METHANE GAS SOURCES
MIXING / ANTI-SCALD VALVES
MUNICIPAL WATER PRESSURE IMPROVEMENTS
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
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ODORS IN WATER
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ODORS, SULPHUR SMELL SOURCES
ANIMAL or URINE ODOR SOURCE DETECTION
PIPING IN BUILDINGS, Clogs Leaks Types
PLUMBING FIXTURES, KITCHEN, BATH
PLUMBING NOISE TRANSMISSION CONTROL
PLUMBING VENT DEFINITIONS & CODES
PLUMBING VENT DEFECTS & NOISES
PUMPS USED in BUILDINGS
PUMPS, WATER REPAIR
RELIEF VALVE LEAKS
RELIEF VALVE, TP VALVE, BOILER
RELIEF VALVE, TP VALVE, STEAM BOILER
RELIEF VALVE, WATER HEATER
RELIEF VALVE, WATER TANK
REPAIR BURST LEAKY PIPES
METHANE GAS HAZARDS
SEPTIC SYSTEM INSPECT DIAGNOSE REPAIR
SHUTOFF VALVE LOCATION, USE
SULPHUR & SEWER GAS SMELL SOURCES
SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS
TOILETS, INSPECT, INSTALL, REPAIR
WATER, WELLS, WATER TANKS: TESTING GUIDE
WATER PRESSURE LOSS DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
WATER PUMPS & TANKS
WATER SOFTENERS & CONDITIONERS
WATER SOURCE ALTERNATIVES
WATER SUPPLY & DRAIN PIPING
WATER SHUTOFF VALVE LOCATION, USE
WATER SHUTOFF VALVE, WELL PUMP
WATER TESTS, CONTAMINANTS, TREATMENT
WELLS CISTERNS & SPRINGS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
CIPP cured in place pipe re-lining repairs: this article describes & defines CIPP, or cured in place pipe relining: a pipe rehabilitation method used to rehabilitate and thus extend the life of sewer piping, storm drains and also water and gas and process piping. We also define & describe directional drilling or horizontal drilling and we list & describe alternatives to the CIPP method including close-fit pipe, shotcrete, sliplining, and spiral wound pipe for trenchless pipe installation or repair.
CIPP can particularly extend the service life of piping abrasive applications are involved but it is also used in ordinary drain waste piping in sizes ranging from residential sewer lines to municipal and commercial piping. The page top sketch of cured in place piping installation details is adapted from Woods' 1979 US. Patent No. 4135958, "Method of lining a passageway with a resin absorbent tube"
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"Closefit" pipe relining refers to inserting a liner into an existing pipeline by deforming and then forcing a liner through the existing pipe.
The new pipe liner may be "structural" - able to withstand external soil and other pressures or forces - or "non-structural" - a liner is inserted inside the pipe to seal it against leakage, but the original pipe is required to withstand external forces.
In some applications the plastic liner used in closefit pipe repairs has been folded into itself to present a smaller external diameter. After the closefit pipe has been inserted through the original pipeline it is un-folded or expande.
After the liner has been inserted the original pipe deformation is reduced, allowing the original pipe to "closely fit" around the new liner, or in an opposite approach, a pipe liner that has been temporarily reduced in diameter is expanded to closely fit into the original pipeline.
An important difference between close-fit pipe relining and sliplining discussed below is that the close fit approach results in a larger diameter pipe at the end of the process than that achieved by routing a slipliner throrough the original pipe.
According to the International Society for Trenchless Technology
In turn, "trenchless technology" refers to a panoply of solutions to underground piping or related systems that address repair or installation without having to excavate. Details of how CIPP may be used to re-line existing pipe systems are illustrated from several U.S. patents shown throughout this article. At left is a CIPP detail from Woods' U.S. Patent 4,778,553 from 1988.
The scope of trenchless technology ranges from directional drilling or "horizontal drilling" & boring tools used by your local plumber to route a supply, drain, or other pipe underneath portions of a building, slab, or foundation to large scale municipal sewer line or water supply piping relining such as projects described by ISTT.
Besides CIPP for existing pipeline repairs or relining and horizontal drilling cited above there is a variety of methods including inserting close-fit pipe into an existing pipeline, using shotcrete to reline pipes, sliplining an existing line, and spiral wound pipe.
CIPP or cured in place piping uses a re-lining method typically applied to existing pipelines.
A liner material of synthetic fabric (non-woven polyester or fiberglass) is impregnated with resin (think slow-curing epoxy) and is forced into the pipeline, then expanded by air or water pressure.
Illustrated at left is a reinforced synthetic fabric pipe liner used by Insta-Pipe, Tumwater WA, USA.
When the CIPP liner is in place, curing time is reduced by circulating hot water through the piping or by pulling a UV light through the pipe. Curing time ranges from an hour to 30 hours.
It should be no surprise that CIPP is described by ISTT, the International Society for Trenchless Technology, as CIPP was first implemented in London in 1971. CIPP was patented by Eric Wood in the U.S. in 1977 and entered the public domain in 1994. Mr. Wood holds a number of related patents - see - Wikipedia retrieved 2/20/2014. Wood's patent describes the procedure as follows:
Related inventions and patents related to CIPP include work and patents by Guilio Catallo, Hermann Suerbaum (Method of softlining sewer rehabilitation US 5280811 A), Richard Carl Polivka, David K. York, (Method for lining of lateral pipelines with flow-through apparatus US 6001212 A), and others. Quoting from Polivka we and noting their patent illustration (left) adds this interesting detail:
Directional drilling, also referred to as horizontal drilling or lateral drilling, is used to install underground piping by drilling a pilot hole followed by a drilling system that inserts or creates an underground pipe in the drill opening.
Orignated in the oil and gas industry as a method for drilling oil and gas wells these methods have also been adapted for smaller scale residential and commercial applications of more modest needs like getting a pipe under a sidewalk or beneath a building foundation without having to excavate and destroy part of the building to run the pipeline.
Openings and ultimately the pipe diameter used for building and mechanical-system related directional drilling applications such as water piping or sewer piping can reach from seven to a thousand feet and can insert pipes ranging in diameter from 1.5 to 8.5 inches.
Above is a simple dry-core drill used for short horizontal drilling applications.
The shotcrete method of pipe relining is used on large diameter systems such as storm drains. A layer of concrete is formed by spraying wet or dry concrete against the interior of the piping or storm rain system. The shotcrete application method is also properly called pneumatically-applied concrete. Describe by industry expert, Shotcrete describes their process as follows:
Wikipedia points out that
The spiral wound pipe repair method was developed to address pipe repairs on existing piping systems whose diameter was either too small or too large for the CIPP or similar pipe relining methods discussed here.
Formadrain asserts that this approach produces a minimum reduction in the diameter of the original pipe. In Australia spiral wound pipe repair equipment is provided by Kembla Waterch. The company's product line includes spiral reliner products that can handle diameters from 225mm to 2.5m. Kembla describes the spiral wound pipe re-lining process in this detail:
A different approach to trenchless pipe repair for existing pipelines inserts equipment to split an existing pipe, permitting a replacement liner to be drawn through the original pipe opening. Below is Spartan Tool's Trenchless Pipe Replacement equipment.
This trenchless pipe repair and replacement system allows 2"-6" pipe replacement with up to three 45-degree bends in the pipe and can even upsize from 4" to 6" pipes. ... Spartan Tool’s Water Line Slitters make quick work of one of your most common jobs – replacement of old and failed water lines.
Simply feed the included cable through the existing water line, attach a replacement line to trailing “carrot”, and tug the slitting head through the line, replacing it seamlessly in the same location as the original line. Very little digging, no trenching, and in a matter of minutes you’re ready to hook up the new service!- spartantool.com 2014
Directional or horizontal drilling will be used where there is not an existing pipeline and has its origins in the oil and gas industries where very large distances are drilled for those purposes.
But in infrastructure piping systems such as installing a pipe below an existing building foundation, slab, or a sidewalk, similar if more modest methods and equipment accomplish a similar function
The sliplining approach to repair of existing pipelines uses a liner that is drawn or inserted through the original pipeline. The slip-liner must be of smaller diameter than the pipe it is to line, leaving adequate space inside the original pipe to insert the new liner. Hobas, an industry expert describes the process:
Resources for Trenchless Pipe Repair: methods, equipment sources
In addition to citations at REFERENCES see
Trenchless Pipe Residential Applications Q&A
Reader Question 2/19/2014 teri said:
Reply: Teri, the CIPP that I know about is described by ISTT as:
More about the diagnosis and cure of indoor moisture problems is at MOISTURE PROBLEMS: CAUSE & CURE.
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