Crude Oil, Diesel Fuel & Heating Oil Exposure Effects, Exposure Limits, Health Hazards
- HEATING OIL EXPOSURE HAZARDS, LIMITS - CONTENTS: Hazard list for exposure to crude oil spills: liquid, fumes, soot, smoke
- Contamination of seafood from oil spills; Hazard list for exposure to No. 2 home heating oil; heating oil exposure limits for liquid or airborne contact; Oil tank smells & odors, sources of heating oil odors in or at buildings. Health hazards from exposure to diesel fuel emissions.
- POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about the effects of exposure to home heating oil & oil fumes
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Heating oil & crude oil exposure limits & health effects: this article describes the exposure limits for home heating oil and for crude oil exposure in both exposure limits for oil fumes and exposure limits for contact with heating oil or crude oil.
To understand the health risks associated with exposure to home heating oil, it is useful to distinguish between exposure to the fuel itself or its fumes (discussed here) versus exposure to the combustion products of the fuel, such as oil burner exhaust, flue gases, smoke, soot, and the contents of those materials.
Exposure limits are discussed for heating oil, fuel oil, diesel fuel, and crude oil.
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Health Hazards of Human Exposure to Heating Oil or Crude Oil Fumes or Liquid
Information on this topic is organized into the sections listed just below.
Article Series Contents
Workers in the Gulf region are at risk from exertional heat stroke, and there can be short-term effects from fresh oil-spill fumes: affecting the eye, neurological system, and skin. Short term lung, kidney, and liver functions may be affected. Media reports and studies of oil spills do not address effects of long term or chronic exposure to crude oil spills, but sources indicate that as oil breaks down in water it becomes less toxic over time. - Reuters
OSHA's position and that of other expert sources such as the ATSDR is that modest typical residential exposure to heating oil fumes is a nuisance that may not pose a hazard to a healthy individual. Reuters reportedthat "Health and Human Services Department officials told a Congressional haring that little is known about the health impacts on people of oil spills." (Reuters, op cit. 6/23/10) We recommend monitoring results of "Assessing the Human Health Effects of the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill: An Institute of Medicine Workshop", June 22-23 2010. - Instutite of Medicine.
While the long term environmental effects of crude oil spills such as the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill are not yet clear, more immediate complaints of oil fumes ashore in Louisiana have been reported. Local health officials in that state have warned people with respiratory illness, asthma, or similar conditions to avoid breathing oil fumes and to "stay indoors".
The oil and oil fume toxicity, safety and MSDS data below provides a summary of possible health concerns from short term, chronic, or long term exposure to refined oil spills such as No. 2 home heating oil. We include links to Material Data Safety Sheets for Crude Oil MSDS [PDF] as well
as HOME HEATING OIL MSDS where we provide more health related details.
Heating Oil Combustion Gas, Soot, Flue Gas Hazards
In understanding the health risks associated with exposure to home heating oil, it is useful to distinguish between exposure to the fuel itself or its fumes (discussed here) versus exposure to the combustion products of the fuel, such as oil burner exhaust, flue gases, smoke, soot, and the contents of those materials. Additional details about oil tank and heating oil safety hazards are at OIL TANK SAFETY.
Fossil Fuel Combustion Gas Hazards for Home Heating Oil: at COMBUSTION GASES & PARTICLE HAZARDS we discuss the hazards from burning fossil fuels to heat buildings or to make hot water. Discusses are the most likely hazards from combustible fuels, oil and gas, in or around buildings. Our quote below is from an MSDS example MSDS for No. 2 Fuel Oil from Hess Corporation.
WARNING: the burning of any hydrocarbon as a fuel in an area without adequate ventilation may result in hazardous levels of combustion products, including carbon monoxide, and inadequate oxygen levels, which may cause unconsciousness, suffocation, and death.
Below we turn to the exposure hazards to un-burned home heating oil liquid and fumes.
How can Exposure to Fuel Oils such as Kerosene or No. 2 Home Heating Oil Affect My Health?
Air Quality & Crude Oil Spill Fume & Smoke Hazards
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) has reported the following possible hazards from exposure to oil spill fumes, smoke, or contaminated food, water, and oil dispersants: - quoting from original source 17 June 2010, http://emergency.cdc.gov/gulfoilspill2010/what_to_expect.asp
People can be exposed to hazardous substances related to the spill by breathing them (air), by swallowing them (food, water), or by touching them (skin). People should avoid close contact to the spill and fumes from any burning oil.
- Smell of crude oil: People may be able to smell the oil spill from the shore. The odor comes from chemicals in the oil that people can smell at levels well below those that would make most people sick. However, exposure to low levels of these chemicals may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin. People with asthma or other lung diseases may be more sensitive to these effects.
- Burning crude oil odors or smells: When responders burn some of the oil, some “Particulate Matter” (PM) may reach the shore. PM is a mix of very small particles and liquid droplets found in the air. PM may pose a greater risk for people who have a chronic condition such as asthma or heart disease.
Watch out: If you smell gas or see smoke or know that fires are nearby, stay indoors, set your air conditioner to reuse indoor air, and avoid physical activities that put extra demands on your lungs and heart.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are monitoring the oil spill and its potential impact on the safety of seafood harvested from the area. Although crude oil has the potential to taint seafood with flavors and odors caused by exposure to hydrocarbon chemicals, the public should not be concerned about the safety of seafood in the stores at this time. For more information about seafood and the oil spill, visit http://www.fda.gov/Food/ucm210436.htm
Drinking water and household water are not expected to be affected by the spill. However, water used for recreation may be affected. Swimming in water contaminated with chemicals from the oil spill could cause health effects. For more information about water and the oil spill, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/oil_spill/information_residents.htm#5.
Follow local and state public health guidelines and warnings about the use of beaches and coastal water for swimming, boating, and fishing. For more information about beach safety, visit http://www.deepwaterhorizonresponse.com/go/doc/2931/542551/.
Oil spill dispersants break an oil slick into small drops. For most people, brief contact with a small amount of oil spill dispersants will do no harm. However, longer contact can cause a rash and dry skin. Dispersants can also irritate your eyes. Breathing or swallowing dispersants can also cause health effects.
If you are concerned that you have been exposed to oil or dispersants, see your doctor. Health care providers can find more information on CDC’s oil spill web site at http://emergency.cdc.gov/gulfoilspill2010.
Air Quality & Home Heating Oil Liquid & Fume Hazards
Our field investigation experience as well as a review of a responsible oil company's No. 2 home heating oil MSDS [Material Data Safety Sheet from HESS Corporation] and oil spill guidelines from several sources including the US EPA and state regulatory agencies provide anecdotal and other evidence that the elderly, infants, or people who are in fragile health, as well as people who suffer from multiple chemical sensitivity, allergies, asthma, and some other respiratory conditions may experience more serious symptoms including asthma attacks and other complaints.
The following is quoted from ATSDR's Public Health Statement for Fuel Oils [PDF] and represents the best summary of this question that we have found:
"We know very little of the human health effects caused by fuel oils. Daily use of a kerosene stove for cooking should not cause any breathing problems for most people. People who use kerosene stoves to cook do not have more colds than people who have other types of stoves. Breathing moderate amounts of deodorized kerosene (fuel oil no. 1) has been shown to slightly affect the ability to smell and to cause a taste sensation.
Numerous case-studies have reported accidental poisoning in children as the result of drinking kerosene. These accidents are probably much more frequent in areas where kerosene is commonly used for cooking and heating.
Drinking kerosene may cause vomiting, diarrhea, swelling of the stomach, stomach cramps, coughing, drowsiness, restlessness, irritability, and unconsciousness; also, it may be difficult to breathe, and breathing may be painful.
Coughing, pneumonia, and difficult or painful breathing after drinking kerosene suggest that kerosene has entered the lungs. In addition, drinking large amounts of kerosene can put you into a coma, cause convulsions, and may even cause death. When kerosene gets on your skin for short periods, it can make your skin itchy, red, and sore; sometimes blisters may occur and your skin may peel.
"Breathing fuel oil no. 1 vapor for periods as short as 1 hour may make you feel nauseous, increase your blood pressure, be irritating to your eyes, or make your eyes bloodshot. Breathing kerosene or JP-5 vapors can also affect your nervous system.
Some of the effects of exposure to heating oil vapors that have been noted in case studies include headache, light-headedness, anorexia (loss of appetite), poor coordination, and difficulty concentrating. Breathing diesel fuel vapors for a long time may damage your kidneys, increase your blood pressure, or lower your blood's ability to clot. Constant skin contact (for example, washing) with diesel fuel may also damage your kidneys.
"It appears that repeated contact with fuel oils can cause skin cancer in mice and may cause liver cancer in mice. However, there is some conflicting information. Further, the fuel oils were tested only on mice. We do not know if fuel oils can cause cancer in humans.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that residual (heavy) fuel oils and marine diesel fuel are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B classification). In addition, IARC considers that there is not enough information (Group 3 classification) available to determine if distillate (light) fuel oils or distillate (light) diesel fuels cause cancer.
They have also determined that occupational exposures to fuel oils during petroleum refining are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A classification). We do not know if fuel oils can cause birth defects or if they affect reproduction."
Several U.S. states including the Connecticut department of health provides a
fact sheet on home heating oil spills [PDF] that includes the advice that homeowners should avoid both breathing heating oil fumes and skin contact with heating oil. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services offers similar advice.
The US ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) also provides a
Public Health Statement for Fuel Oils [PDF]and related documents including
Heating Oil Exposure Health Effects [PDF]
and ATSDRs section on Heating Oil Chemical Properties. [PDF]
Diesel Fuel Emission Hazard Research Articles
Reader Question: explain that reducing Diesel Exhaust Nox from the tail pipe is significant
How should I explain to transport Authorities that reducing Diesel Exhaust Nox from the tail pipe should be enough to upgrade a Diesel engine to Euro 5 EU standard Regulations. - C.B. 7 June 2015
Reply: these references on diesel fuel emission toxicity & hazards may be helpful
- Arlt, Volker M. "3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a potential human cancer hazard in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution: a review of the evidence." Mutagenesis 20, no. 6 (2005): 399-410.
- Bünger, Jürgen, Jürgen Krahl, Axel Munack, Yvonne Ruschel, Olaf Schröder, Birgit Emmert, Götz Westphal, Michael Müller, Ernst Hallier, and Thomas Brüning. "Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel." Archives of toxicology 81, no. 8 (2007): 599-603.
- Neeft, John PA, Michiel Makkee, and Jacob A. Moulijn. "Diesel particulate emission control." Fuel processing technology 47, no. 1 (1996): 1-69.
- Scheepers, P. T. J., and R. P. Bos. "Combustion of diesel fuel from a toxicological perspective." International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 64, no. 3 (1992): 149-161.
MSDS [Material Safety Data Sheet] information for No. 2 Home Heating Oil
Here we summarize the basic information provided on MSDS sheets (material data safety sheets) for home heating oil. This information is a condensation of the full MSDS information on heating oil - readers should be sure to review the full home heating oil MSDS.
See MSDS Sheet for HOME HEATING OIL for our full article on this topic, including exposure limits for exposure to home heating oil in liquid or gas form.
A typical No. 2 home heating oil MSDS document provided by Hess Corporation includes the hazard identification information for home heating oil that we list below. The same document provides information about toxicity levels - the exposure necessary for serious medical effects to be at risk or to actually occur.
Watch out: Fire and Explosion Hazards of No. 2 Home Heating Oil [fumes]: OSHA and NFPA Class 2 COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID (see Section 14 for transportation classification). Vapors may be ignited rapidly when exposed to heat, spark, open flame or other source of ignition. When mixed with air and exposed to an ignition source, flammable vapors can burn in the open or explode in confined spaces. Being heavier than air, vapors may travel long distances to an ignition source and flash back. Runoff to sewer may cause fire or explosion hazard.
Readers should also see OIL TANK SAFETY where we describe the flammability and explosion hazards of fuel oil fumes and where we provide an extensive list of hazards and safety concerns for fuel oil.
Also see OIL TANK LEAK ADVICE for our detailed advice on handling leaky oil tanks as well as links to oil tank leak regulations for U.S. states and Canadian provinces. Readers should also see BOILER NOISE SMOKE ODORS for a discussion of flue gas leaks, smells, and hazards from the combustion products of oil burning heating appliances.
The Teratogenicity of Fuel Oil or No. 2 Home Heating Oil or Related Products - resarch citations
4/3/2014 Michele said:
Is there any information on fuel oil leaks being teratogenic?
(May 15, 2014) jon said:
what health effects, if neighbors #2 heating oil leaked under your entire slab? Any if EPH is greater than 5100, how does this impact your property? And lastly are there any history of dimunization of value due to remediated properties?
For other readers, Teratogenic is defined as
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development. It is often thought of as the study of human congenital abnormalities, but it is much broader than that, taking in other non-birth developmental stages, including puberty; and other non-human life forms, including plants. - Wikipedia, retrieved 4/3/2014, original source en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teratology
Define Teratogen: a drug or other substance capable of interfering with the development of a fetus, causing birth defects. - dictionary.reference.com, retrieved 4/3/14, original source: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/teratogen
With the warning that not I nor other InspectApedia editors are medical experts, let's hop over to some of the fuel oil MSDS data. A typical No. 2 home heating oil MSDS (courtesy of Hess Corporation) discusses health effects of heating oil / fuel oil exposure.
Clicking on that page returns to our general oil-tanks information so you'll need to use your browser back-button to return here more directly.
You'll see that the discussion there is principally about possible carcinogenic (cancer causing) effects of fuel oil or heating oil exposure. The word teratogenic does not appear in that discussion. Or if that's not enough take a look at MSDS Sheet for HOME HEATING OIL.
But as soon as we go beyond the industry MSS & ATSDR authority one can certainly cite research suggesting teratogenic concerns. Here are a few citations of research into the teratogenic effects of fuel oil.
- Albers, Peter H., and Gary H. Heinz. "FLIT-MLO and No. 2 fuel oil: effects of aerosol applications to mallard eggs on hatchability and behavior of ducklings." Environmental research 30.2 (1983): 381-388.
- Dumont, James N., T. Wayne Schultz, Michelle V. Buchanan, and Glen L. Kao. "Frog embryo teratogenesis assay: Xenopus (FETAX)—A short-term assay applicable to complex environmental mixtures." In Short-term bioassays in the analysis of complex environmental mixtures III, pp. 393-405. Springer US, 1983.
[In my opinion and as we discuss elsewhere at ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS at BUILDINGS, frogs are an especially important indicator organism.]
- Ellenton, Jennifer A. "Teratogenic activity of aliphatic and aromatic fractions of Prudhoe Bay crude and fuel oil No. 2 in the chicken embryo." Toxicology and applied pharmacology 63, no. 2 (1982): 209-215.
- Hoffman, David J. "Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)." Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Current Issues 5, no. 5 (1979): 835-844.
- POLAND, ALAN, and EDWARD GLOVER. "2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: segregation of toxicity with the Ah locus." Molecular pharmacology 17, no. 1 (1980): 86-94.
- Viana, M., E. Herrera, and B. Bonet. "Teratogenic effects of diabetes mellitus in the rat. Prevention by vitamin E." Diabetologia 39, no. 9 (1996): 1041-1046.
You'll see in any more extensive literature search that Hoffman dominates search results on the topic and so in my opinion is a key resource.
So my answer is yes quite possibly.
But considering your use of the undefined phrase "fuel oil leaks" I must add that "exposure" bears some careful examination and definition. A trivial oil spill at the oil burner during oil filter change most likely does not produce a measurable effect (in my OPINION) on humans. The people to watch for health effects first are those for whom exposure levels are likely to be higher. For example, see:
- Costello, Joseph. "Morbidity and mortality study of shale oil workers in the United States." Environmental health perspectives 30 (1979): 205.
- Mehlman, Myron A. "Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil-refining and petrochemical industry—Part XXII: health hazards from exposure to gasoline containing methyl tertiary butyl ether: study of New Jersey residents." Toxicology and industrial health 12, no. 5 (1996): 613-627.
- Tsai, Shan P., Vivien W. Chen, Erin E. Fox, Judy K. Wendt, Xiao Cheng Wu, Delia E. Foster, and Alistair E. Fraser. "Cancer incidence among refinery and petrochemical employees in Louisiana, 1983–1999." Annals of epidemiology 14, no. 9 (2004): 722-730.
And let's remember the confounding effects of all of the other chemicals in the environment to which most people are exposed, even mere cooking oils.
- Spektor, Dalia M. A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses. Volume 6: Oil Well Fires. No. RAND/MR-1018/6-OSD. Rand national defense research inst santa monica ca, 1998.
- Wang, Li-Fang. "Mutagenicity and aromatic amine content of fumes from heated cooking oils produced in Taiwan." Food and chemical toxicology 37, no. 2 (1999): 125-134.
Research on Heating Fuels & Oils Made from Recycled Plastics or Tyres
12 Jan 2015 Bheki Simelane said:
I would to know how good is the number 4 fuel oil made from recycled tyres and plastics
No. 4 fuel? See the definitions and types of heating fuels we provide at
HEATING OIL TYPES & PROPERTIES
There you'll see that #4 fuel oil (bunker oil) is used in large stationary engines, power plants, and very large commercial boilers. No. 4 oil when burned as heating fuel may contain several contaminants including nickel and sulphur.
There is indeed a No. 6 fuel being produced from recycled plastics by John Bordynuik, who JBI Inc. using a process he invented to convert plastic into oil by rearranging its hydrocarbon chains. Here is some research on production of fuels from recycled plastics:
- Al-Salem, S. M., P. Lettieri, and J. Baeyens. "Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review." Waste management 29, no. 10 (2009): 2625-2643.
- Bain, Richard L., Helena L. Chum, James P. Diebold, Robert J. Evans, Ralph P. Overend, Bahman Rejai, and John W. Scahill. "Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols." U.S. Patent 5,504,259, issued April 2, 1996.
- Akpanudoh, Nnamso S., Karishma Gobin, and George Manos. "Catalytic degradation of plastic waste to liquid fuel over commercial cracking catalysts: effect of polymer to catalyst ratio/acidity content." Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 235, no. 1 (2005): 67-73.
- Dou, Binlin, Sungjin Lim, Pilsun Kang, Jungho Hwang, Soonho Song, Tae-U. Yu, and Kyoon-Duk Yoon. "Kinetic study in modeling pyrolysis of refuse plastic fuel." Energy & fuels 21, no. 3 (2007): 1442-1447.
- Panda, Achyut K., R. K. Singh, and D. K. Mishra. "Thermolysis of waste plastics to liquid fuel: A suitable method for plastic waste management and manufacture of value added products—A world prospective." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, no. 1 (2010): 233-248.
- Song, Ho-Jun, Jaehoon Lee, Ankur Gaur, Jong-Jin Park, and Jin-Won Park. "Production of gaseous fuel from refuse plastic fuel via co-pyrolysis using low-quality coal and catalytic steam gasification." Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management 12, no. 4 (2010): 295-301.
- Xiao, Rui, Baosheng Jin, Hongcang Zhou, Zhaoping Zhong, and Mingyao Zhang. "Air gasification of polypropylene plastic waste in fluidized bed gasifier." Energy Conversion and Management 48, no. 3 (2007): 778-786.
Continue reading at MSDS Sheet for HOME HEATING OIL or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
Or see CRUDE OIL & DISPERSANT EXPOSURE
Or see OIL TANK SAFETY
Or see FUEL OIL TYPES & CHARACTERISTICS.
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Question: odors after removing oil tank
(Apr 28, 2014) Anonymous said:
we removed an old oil tank from our basement,quite a bit leaked out how can we remove the odor from our house
Detergent scrubbing, oil spill deodorizer sprays or liquids, dryout, then surface sealing is about as good as you can get. I'd remove whatever materials possible that don't need to be saved. Beware also that VOCs tend to permeate and hang around in other soft materials like insulation. On occasion the spill is so serious that deodorizing is not successful.
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