Pet Urine Stains & Scuff or Scratch Marks in buildings
diagnostic guide to identifying & removing urine stains
& other marks
PET STAINS & MARKS in BUILDINGS - CONTENTS: How to recognize and what to do about scratches or black stains or urine pee and poop marks & smells on indoor walls and trim. This article discusses dog stains on walls, people-stains on walls, urine stains in buildings including urine stains on floors & carpets, and scratches made by pets or other animals in or around buildings. We also give first aid advice for carpets that have been peed-on or pooped-on by pets or other animals.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website.
Pet & other animal stain identification in buildings:
This article describes common indoor stains caused by animals and pets on floors and walls due to pet urine or simply from a pet frequently lying against or touching a building surface. We also describe a range of pet scrapes and scratches that can provide evidence about the building history of presence of pets.
These photographs also assist in determining when a building has previously housed pets or other animals even if none are currently present. We discuss the cause and cure of various types of pet stains, scrapes, scratches, and smells.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
With a little thought we can easily distinguish pet stains on drywall from thermal tracking by the stain pattern and location as well as other details such as the absence of a heat source, or the identification of a location where we'd expect a pet to rest.
Similarly we can identify black stains on walls where people's heads rested while sitting on furniture or in bed (see photo link just below).
Black marks on interior walls such as the black "mold suspect stains" shown on the white painted drywall in this photo might be just be where the dog lay on the floor against the wall (stain at floor level in this picture) or in this photographof black stains higher on a wall where people rested their heads in bed.
In buildings where pets are or have been housed, smudge marks on walls and at doors and door trim sometimes mistaken for thermal tracking. Our page top photo is recognizable as animal urine stains on a floor . But what about those dark blob stains close to floor level on the wall and on the baseboard trim in our photo at above-left?
These dark wall stains are not mold, but these marks, along with others (scratches, urine stains) can tell us the history of pet occupancy in a building, information of use when investigating indoor air quality concerns, especially in spaces occupied by asthmatics or people with pet allergies.
Black marks on interior walls such as painted drywall might be just be where the dog lay on the floor against the wall (as shown in this photograph).
Provided the stains are due to simple contact between an animal and a building surface, the cures for dog or cat dirt marks on building walls or trim are simple cleaning or at most, re-painting.
Pet stains on Doors & Door Jambs
You may observe dark greasy stains on door jambs, and sometimes scratches and door trim damage due to pets, usually dogs or cats, where those animals frequently pass by, or stop to scratch themselves at those locations.
Our photo (at above left) it is is pretty obvious that "the dog did this" because of the wear where a pet, probably a dog, scratched fruitlessly at the door begging to be let out.
But more subtle dark stains may appear in these locations, from the same cause, but where dog and owner had better cooperation, as pointed-to by our client (photo at left). [Click to enlarge any image at InspectAPedia.]
We welcome more thermal tracking, soot tracking, air bypass leaks, and similar photos of indoor stains as well as text suggestions to expand this detail and would be glad to credit contributors.
Usually soot marks, thermal bridging, or thermal tracking stains appear, if at all, in the building interior locations discussed in the remaining sections of this article.
Pet Urine Stains on Building Walls or Carpets
Perhaps the most griped about indoor stain where pets are or were present is cat or dog pee stains on carpeting.
When a dog, cat, (or in some reported cases humans) has urinated on carpeting we recommend that the wall to wall carpet and carpet padding be replaced. Virtually no cleaning product will be capable of removing all of the molecules that invite your pet to pee (or poop) there again.
Even when carpet cleaners and sanitizers are used and the room smells great and there is no visible stain, the presence of pet pee in carpet backing or carpet padding or even in subflooring below will invite a new visit to this public pet toilet.
When you remove carpeting and before replacing it, check the condition of the floor below, and if the pee spot was close to building walls, check for pee-soaked drywall or trim boards too.
The flooring or subflooring below the urinated-on carpet needs to be inspected for stains and penetration of urine as well.
More About Killing Pet Odors vs Removing Pet Urine Odors
There are lots of reasons that animals urinate in buildings, and pet owners know most of them: no access to a litter box, dirty litter box, dog shut indoors too long, dog or cat marking territory, fear, etc.
And as we introduced just above, most pet lovers know well that once-peed-on is again-peed-on in many cases.
Back in the 1970's in our first apartment Wappingers Falls one of our two cats peed and pooped on Harriet's pillow.
We were not sure which cat chose Harriet for this special attention. But whoever it was, the damn cat did it again and again. Harriet and Hobbit, one of the possible culprits are shown at left. Finally Harriet (the human in the photo at left) gave me this ultimatum:
Either THEY GO or I GO!
My mother later opined that that was when I made a big mistake. Just sayin'. A pet shut into a room and abandoned may have no choice about where it relieves itself.
Because urine leaves an odor in wood surfaces that is difficult to remove, once an area has been used as a cat or dog toilet, animals are likely to return to that spot to pee on it again. It's trivial to throw out a peed-on pillow, but what do we do about peed-on wood floors?
While special pet deodorizers and cleaners are available to clean and remove pet odors, we find that often the animals will continue to return to the scene of their accident or crime. If the amount of urine was very small, an ounce, one event, covering just a few square inches, it may be possible to clean and seal the subfloor using a lacquer primer/sealer, clear shellac, or another appropriate re-finishing coating.
also URINE ODOR REMOVAL in CLOTHING for detailed advice on how to find and remove pet and other animal or human odors and smells in buildings or from carpets and clothing.
Pet Urine Stains on Building Floors - How to Recognize & Remove Stains in Wood Floors
Often when an animal has urinated one or more times on a carpeted floor, later removal of the carpeting will disclose dark stains in the wood flooring of a finished floor.
Our photo (left) shows severe urine staining on a hardwood floor of a bedroom outside of a bath. The owner was unaware of the stains until the carpeting was removed.
The white colors in the stained area demonstrate the futility of attempting to remove the animal stains by bleach.
If stains penetrate only a millimeter of wood it might be possible to sand and re-finish the floor, or to use a combination of sanding, bleaching, and re-staining of the finish floor as we describe just below.
Reader J.W. comments on using hydrogen peroxide to remove pet urine stains from wood flooring: :
If you have pet urine on blond wood or soft light wood, then you can use hydrogen peroxide on the wood by applying several applications--just rub it in with a cloth or a brand new dry sponge and let dry then repeat often until your wood is light again. I had this problem when i pulled up a carpet that came with the house when i bought it 10 yrs ago & found dark pet stains on the soft yellow pine wood & realized it was pet urine.
We also have removed small areas of stains in wood flooring by working meticulously with diluted bleach and a cotton swab, applying bleach, then washing it off, in several cycles until the stained area of the wood reached a color closely matching the original wood flooring out of the stain.
Watch out: don't over-bleach flooring when trying to remove stains or you'll end up with a too-light area of wood. If you make this mistake, working carefully with wood stain products such as those made by MinWax you may be able to return the over-bleached wood floor area back to the necessary hue. Hydrogen peroxide is less risky in this regard.
But often we find that the urine stains have penetrated the wood so deeply that flooring replacement is about the only option if the occupants don't want to live with these stains.
First Aid for Pet Peed-on Carpets & Hardwood Floors
Reader Question: can we see dog pee or poop stains when dry? How do I protect the floors from damage? What will I find under the rug?
I had a few questions about stains on rugs and hard wood floors if you could help me.
Can pet stains from a dog be seen when they are dried? Or is there a special way to see them.
Also if pains [sic] stain are on a run and there is a padding underneath the rug will it mess the hard wood floors up? If so how long will it take to mess them up?
Also if the hardwood floor gets messed up from pet stains can it be sanded and refinished?
When a rug is pulled up underneath what would be like dark yellowish stain on the bottom of the rug? - B.M. 01/29/2014
Reply: suggestions for finding animal or other urine stains on carpets & other building surfaces
In the article above and in companion articles listed at the end (More Reading) we discuss both obviously visible pet urine (or worse) stains in buildings, carpets, floors, walls, and
at UV LIGHT BLACK LIGHT USES we discuss using a black light that can help spot urine stained materials even after drying and where there is no obvious visible mark.
The ugly black blotches shown in our photo penetrate rather deeply into this oak hardwood floor. Previously wall-to-wall carpeting had been peed-on repeatedly but the carpet, left in place, hid more difficult damage that was developing in the floor itself.
Deep stains like these may not be removed by surface-sanding, though I have had some success with sanding to remove the top coating of floor sealer, meticulous bleaching, followed by a re-staining and re-finishing of the entire floor.
It may be possible to clean and deodorize carpets but in my experience unless we also deliberately odorize the carpet with something the animal's nose and the animal itself hate (like an ammonia smell) the dog or cat is likely to pee or poop in the same spot again.
It is more difficult to deodorize padding. I would prefer to remove both carpet and padding if peed-on, but understanding that's often very costly and people wish to avoid that expense, one might try carpet cleaning and under-padding replacement.
In my experience animal urine that soaks through carpet and padding and left alone will ruin a hardwood floor by making dark stains that go rather deep into the wood.
A first aid routine that minimizes risk of that damage includes these steps:
Pull back both carpeting and padding over the flooring as soon as the urine stain is found or even suspected.
Clean the hardwood floor surface below the pet-peed carpet and padding.
Put down six-mil poly plastic (temporarily) extending a couple of feet past the peed area so that you can put the carpet back down without pee or carpet cleaner bleeding through to (and damaging) the floor below.
Then try a rug shampooer. There are quite a few cleaners sold claiming to remove pet odors; some of the more expensive and maybe more effective products are sold through veterinarians and pet supply outlets.
These articles also contain advice on urine odor removal
If the padding is also smelly, I'd cut out the smelly area of padding and piece in a replacement section under the cleaned, dried carpeting.
Reader Question: odd stains on carpet may be traced to old pet urine spots
9 Oct 2014 Brennan said:
Have you ever seen this in carpet in the middle of a room (not near the baseboards). I received a moisture meter to check some ceiling stains to see if they were active or inactive after the former owner replaced the roof. I was using the moisture meter to check the basement- all surfaces. I found some areas in the basement carpet where the moisture meter was high but dry to the touch. I run a humidifier in that room and it doesn't work very hard to maintain 45-50 rh%
It has a 'line' type stain. A bit darkened (carpet is grey, so this is darkish grey), but not like the other areas where there is actual infiltration soiling (I have seen it is one room near the baseboards but is completely dry). My home is old, so of course it has air leaks.
The former owners had a couch over this area, so I thought it was due to that. Adjacent staining is yellow coloring and also shows moisture in the meter. So moisture and a line/ghosting in carpet. The carpet is gross anyway, so I thought about peeling it back to see if there is a crack in the slab (60+ yr old house). A contractor friend, without seeing it, said it was radon gas escaping. That seemed like a stretch, since Radon is colorless. I think though, perhaps he meant, air is feeding through the crack and depositing soil on the carpet.
If I do find a crack- should is seal it with concrete/caulk and re-carpet and be vigilant about dehumidification?
Most moisture meters, if we exclude thermal imaging, rely on measuring differences in electrical resistance to detect moisture. But other contaminants or materials can also decrease resistance in an area of building material. So not every reading variation is necessarily truly detecting moisture. Some attention, particularly looking for possible moisture sources, are key.
Both pin type moisture meters (Delmhorst for example) and electronic moisture meters (such as some Tramex meters) can be fooled by metal nearby: pipes, foil faced insulation, wiring.
Second: no moisture meter, nor thermal imaging device, can detect old leaks that have since dried, even though the leak might have initiated a building problem with rot, insect damage, or mold contamination. This is why we argue that reliance on meters and imaging alone for water or mold detection are unreliable. But the instruments are indeed useful, in thoghtful hands. And neat too.
Reader follow-up: old urine stains leave salts, are hygroscopic, and might be picked up by a moisture meter
Thanks for your comment. One thought (using my science background) was that the moisture meter gives a high reading on what looks like an old dog urine stain (former owner had dog). I had the thought that these left over salts and ions from the urine might act as a weak conductor and activate the moisture meter.
On the internet, it seems that carpet companies use moisture meters to find hidden pet stains, because the salt from the urine can draw moisture from the air (or even just the natural evaporation of the concrete slab). So, thanks for your help. I tend to over-think things. I agree, it is a neat tool.
Examples of Scratches Indicating Animal Presence in Buildings
Noticing scratches or tears on floors, trim, even walls and furnishings can indicate a previous presence of cats, dogs, or other pets or animals in a building. For example notice the pet scratch marks on the floor trim in our photos just below.
Continue reading at ANIMAL or URINE ODOR REMOVAL or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
how do you get rid of these pet stains - my dog peed
(May 28, 2012) Cherie said:
How do you get rid of stains like these, my dog made black pee stains and we rent the place please help!
I am sorry to say that in my experience those black pee stains are almost impossible to remove from a wood floor. The urine that has soaked into the wood stains as deeply as it has soaked-in.
If the stains were just at the surface, careful use of household cleaners or even bleach can restore the floor enough that with some stain it can be returned to its original color.
Deeper stains, as we usually find is the case, can on occasion be removed by deep sanding, if the floor has enough thickness of wood to permit sanding and refinishing - a costly process.
Still deeper stains - the fix is to replace the flooring, or re-cover it with a new floor.
Sorry but deep stains are very often the case, especially if the urine was through carpeting onto a wood floor below, as the carpet holds urine in place for a longer time.
It is for this reason that no reasonable security deposit will be big enough to cover the possible costs of pet urine damage to a building. The landlord would have had to collect a deposit that, in addition to other protections, could cover floor replacement or re-finishing.
Try cleaning and dilute bleaching to see if you can remove or whiten the stains. Work first on a small stain area in a less obtrusive spot to practice. Apply bleach, remove it promptly, reapply, in stages so that you don't over-bleach the flooring making it too white.
If that doesn't work, the more costly approaches above are about all that's left.
Question: we're worried that a dark stain on the floor is mold but could it be from dogs?
(June 30, 2012) Merrell said:
We recently rented a home, and noticed a dark stain in the room we were setting up as our daughter's bedroom. We are worried that it's water/ mold stain, however the owners insist that its been there for 8 years and has not changed at all since then. What are some ways to tell the difference between an animal stain (they had 2 dogs) and potential foundation leak/ mold stains? We are being told to come out of pocket for an inspection if we are really concerned. We are definitely concerned but before hiring someone, we'd like your suggestions on how to best determine what this stain is. Thank you!
Forgot to mention, this stain is appearing on wood flooring surface. Thank you!
Merrill the most immediate and unambiguous way to distinguish between pet stains and stains on a wood floor due to a foundation leak (and related mold) would be by visual inspection to trace the stains to and through actual building ocmponents. For example the stains shown in the photos above on this page do not connect to any nearby plumbing nor to an exterior wall. In other words, follow the water path.
Also, "mold stains" that are due to recent leakage would likely be accompanied by mold. If you cannot wipe any material whatsoever off of the surface, that is, if the surface was previously cleaned or never had surface debris in the first place, but the stain is imbedded into the wood, it could be a pet urine or feces stain. If that stain connects to an area of historic or recurrent water leaks, and if the area was previously moldy but the mold was removed, the black stain that remains in wood is generally of cosmetic import only. Finally, if you believe that there was a history of building or plumbing leaks, following the path of water from those leaks will show you where else to explore for possible hidden problems. For example one might make a small exploratory test cut into a wall cavity in the area of most-suspect wetting to evaluate the condition of the cavity space.
(Nov 1, 2014) pat baum said:
headaches dizzy metallic taste from cat urine fumes throughout house.cleaned areas where I know cats go. windows open. heap air cleaner on. did not work. I cannot leave house because I have no where to go. what can I do? HELP
Pat, call your doctor for medical advice - first.
No air cleaner will remove the source of odors or contaminants. That needs to be found and cleaned or removed.
(Dec 3, 2014) rain said:
I have yellow pine floor with 3 coats varnish. A Persian rug on top, dog peed, floor now has dark yellow pee circles. how do I get rid of the dark yellow circle?
Rain you'll probably have to re-finish the flooring area if simple surface cleaning with a mild detergent or vinegar doesn't remove the marks.
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Animal Stains or marks on building interior walls caused by dogs, cats or other animal stains on building carpets, floors, walls, doors, trim: how to diagnose and remove pet stains and odors.
Black cosmetic mold - such as black stains due to Ceratocystis or Ophistoma fungi that were on framing lumber at the time of construction may be completely harmless, cosmetic only. At Black cosmetic mold we discuss some simple but reliable ways to identify cosmetic molds that have been present since time of building construction. In our companion article, Recognize Harmless Black Mold, we discuss two specific harmless, cosmetic black molds commonly found on framing lumber.
Efflorescence & White Stuff white, tan, crystalline, tan, or other-colored mineral salts on foundations and masonry walls - white fluffy stuff or white crystalline stuff often found on building walls may not be mold at all, though it is an indicator of problem leaks, moisture, dampness. Efflorescence describes white fluffy crystalline material that is not mold. WHITE MOLD PHOTOS describes actual white or light colored mold in buildings.
House dust which may or may not contain mold, allergens, or other problems
"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standards, March-April 1993
"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards, January-February 1991
Access Ramp building codes:
Access Ramp Standards:
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources for good design of stairs and ramps etc. even where disabled individuals are not the design target.
ANSI A117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporated into the ADA)
ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standards)
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).
Asbestos Identification and Testing References
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
ASHRAE resource on dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries. The following three ASHRAE Handbooks are also available at the InspectAPedia bookstore in the third page of our Insulate-Ventilate section:
2005 ASHRAE Handbook : Fundamentals: Inch-Pound Edition (2005 ASHRAE HANDBOOK : Fundamentals : I-P Edition) (Hardcover), Thomas H. Kuehn (Contributor), R. J. Couvillion (Contributor), John W. Coleman (Contributor), Narasipur Suryanarayana (Contributor), Zahid Ayub (Contributor), Robert Parsons (Author), ISBN-10: 1931862702 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862707
2004 ASHRAE Handbook : Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Systems and Equipment : Inch-Pound Edition (2004 ASHRAE Handbook : HVAC Systems and Equipment : I-P Edition) (Hardcover)
by American Society of Heating, ISBN-10: 1931862478 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862479
"2004 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment The 2004 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Systems and Equipment discusses various common systems and the equipment (components or assemblies) that comprise them, and describes features and differences. This information helps system designers and operators in selecting and using equipment. Major sections include Air-Conditioning and Heating Systems (chapters on system analysis and selection, air distribution, in-room terminal systems, centralized and decentralized systems, heat pumps, panel heating and cooling, cogeneration and engine-driven systems, heat recovery, steam and hydronic systems, district systems, small forced-air systems, infrared radiant heating, and water heating); Air-Handling Equipment (chapters on duct construction, air distribution, fans, coils, evaporative air-coolers, humidifiers, mechanical and desiccant dehumidification, air cleaners, industrial gas cleaning and air pollution control); Heating Equipment (chapters on automatic fuel-burning equipment, boilers, furnaces, in-space heaters, chimneys and flue vent systems, unit heaters, makeup air units, radiators, and solar equipment); General Components (chapters on compressors, condensers, cooling towers, liquid coolers, liquid-chilling systems, centrifugal pumps, motors and drives, pipes and fittings, valves, heat exchangers, and energy recovery equipment); and Unitary Equipment (chapters on air conditioners and heat pumps, room air conditioners and packaged terminal equipment, and a new chapter on mechanical dehumidifiers and heat pipes)."
1996 Ashrae Handbook Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment: Inch-Pound Edition (Hardcover), ISBN-10: 1883413346 or ISBN-13: 978-1883413347 ,
"The 1996 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook is the result of ASHRAE's continuing effort to update, expand and reorganize the Handbook Series. Over a third of the book has been revised and augmented with new chapters on hydronic heating and cooling systems design; fans; unit ventilator; unit heaters; and makeup air units. Extensive changes have been added to chapters on panel heating and cooling; cogeneration systems and engine and turbine drives; applied heat pump and heat recovery systems; humidifiers; desiccant dehumidification and pressure drying equipment, air-heating coils; chimney, gas vent, fireplace systems; cooling towers; centrifugal pumps; and air-to-air energy recovery. Separate I-P and SI editions."
Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Historical use of brick in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the Kent Tavern in Calais, VT.
"Brick nogging is a European method of construction which was brought to the new world in the early-nineteenth century. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review.
Building Research Council, BRC, nee Small Homes Council, SHC, School of Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, brc.arch.uiuc.edu. "The Small Homes Council (our original name) was organized in 1944 during the war at the request of the President of the University of Illinois to consider the role of the university in meeting the demand for housing in the United States. Soldiers would be coming home after the war and would be needing good low-cost housing. ... In 1993, the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the School of Architecture-Building Research Council. ... The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that would affect the quality of the nation's housing stock.
How could homes be designed and built more efficiently?
What kinds of construction and production techniques worked well and which did not?
How did people use different kinds of spaces in their homes?
What roles did community planning, zoning, and interior design play in how neighborhoods worked
Energy Savers: Whole House Systems Approach to Energy Efficient Home Design [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] - U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Supply Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Supply_Vent.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11880?print
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Exhaust Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Exhaust.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11870
"Energy Savers: Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Energy_Recovery_Venting.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11900
"Energy Savers: Detecting Air Leaks [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Air_Sealing_1.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438 "Falls in the home and public places are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, but are overlooked in most literature. This book is unique in that it is entirely devoted to falls. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insurance adjusters, architects, writers of building codes, attorneys, or anyone who cares for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when people will likely fall, what most likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. "
Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Humidity: What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem?
Ice Dam Leaks in building attics and roof cavities, how to inspect for evidence of leaks, identify causes, and correct bad attic ventilation, improper roof venting, and these causes of attic mold or roof structure damage
Insulation Types, table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE. Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail.
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov
"A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. - PDF Document from NIS
Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Information about the U.S. company can be found at http://www.pergo.com where we obtained historical data used in our discussion of the age of flooring materials in buildings.
Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of
piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall construction with long top girts, diagonal timber bracing, and small diameter logs
placed vertically along with concrete chinking to fill in the wall plane.
Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-construction/ and where plank houses were built by native Americans, see
Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228,
Photographer: Mike Meuser
06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank Houses are being sold to raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.
Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe, Arizona - see rebath.com
Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or
ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2,
available from the publisher, Lawyers ^ Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com email@example.com and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC%20SCREEN.pdf ] -
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Manufactured & Modular Homes: Modular Building Systems Association, MBSA, modularhousing.com, is a trade association promoting and providing links to contact modular builders in North America. Also see the Manufactured Home Owners Association, MHOAA, at www.mhoaa.us. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of America is a National Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in the United States.
Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building flood and how to prevent mold growth in buildings by selection of building materials and by anti-mold construction details.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, available from the publisher, Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com firstname.lastname@example.org and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones