Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman Loose Plaster Ceiling & Wall Hazards: Falling Plaster Injury Risk

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Loose or collapsing plaster ceiling hazards:

Here we provide a photo guide to identifying types of plaster installed in buildings, using building ceilings as a photo and investigation guide.

We illustrate plaster coatings, cracks, bulges, hazards. Plaster ceiling collapse hazards & photographs.

In this article series we describe and discuss the identification and history of older interior building surface materials such plaster, plaster board, split wood lath, sawn lath, and expanded metal lath, Beaverboard, and Drywall - materials that were used to form the (usually) non-structural surface of building interior ceilings and walls.

We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.

Loose Plaster is Unsafe, Especially Loose, Falling Plaster Ceilings

Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman

Watch out: for loose plaster that can fall and injure building occupants.

If ceiling plaster is bulged and moves when you apply gentle pressure to it, chances are that the plaster keys, the protruding plaster that oozed between the plaster lath strips to mechanically secure the plaster surface in place, have broken off.

On the other hand, some "bulged"-looking plaster may be soundly secured, as we describe at PLASTER BULGES & PILLOWS.

Wood Lath Ceiling Collapse Photographs

Our loose plaster photo at below left shows wall plaster that was quite loose and whose plaster ears had broken away. Some renovators use the term "rotted plaster" or "rotten plaster" but of course since we're talking about a cementious material, not organic wood, "rot" is a euphemism for deteriorated.

Our loose plaster ceiling photo (below right) shows an unsafe building ceiling at risk of falling.

Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman

Plaster in this condition can easily fall away. While small areas of loose plaster can be successfully re-adhered using plaster washers and screws, a better (but more costly) repair is to remove the loose plaster entirely and re-plaster the section properly.

At below are two photographs of plaster ceilings in the attic that has already fallen away in two older homes. You may also enjoy noticing the pit-sawn kerf marks on some of the plaster lath of this older home in the photo at below left, and the hand-wrought iron hook in the photo at right. .

Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman

Watch out: often the framing supporting plaster ceilings in homes built before 1900 was sized to be just strong enough to support the weight of the plaster itself. Such ceiling structures were not intended to support the weight of a curious home owner or home inspector.

Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman

Expanded Metal Lath Plaster Ceiling Catastrophic Collapse Case

Plaster ceilings in newer buildings are not immune from collapse either, as you'll see by the catastrophic ceiling collapse shown just below. This plaster ceiling was applied on expanded metal lath. The lath was wired to steel pipes or bars that in turn were hung from a smaller number of steel supports.

The final steel supports were hung from wire ties connected to fasteners that had been "pin-shot fasteners" shot into the sides of concrete ceiling joists.

The combination of several factors led to this ceiling collapse:

Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman

The combination of several factors led to this ceiling collapse:

Plaster lath board © Daniel Friedman

Typical Design & Construction of Suspended Plaster Ceilings

According to Van Den Branden and Hartsell, a typical suspended wire-mesh based plaster ceilings using hangers, carriers, and furring channels (such as described by Inland Steel Products Co.,) typically used No. 8 galvanized wire, though other wire sizes, rods, and flat iron were also used:

Fasteners for suspended plaster ceilings: None of VanDenBranden/Hartsell's hanger examples included pin-shot fasteners, though that may be due to the age of the text. They describe

Also see BUILDING SAFETY HAZARDS GUIDE for more building hazards of particular concern to homeowners or building contractors, building inspectors, and home inspectors.


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