Oil fired hot water heating boiler (C) Daniel Friedman Heating Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Defects List
Heating Boiler Inspection Education
     

  • DEFECTS LIST - HEAT BOILER OIL - CONTENTS: Oil-Fueled Hot Water Heating boiler system (hot water heat or hydronic heat) inspection points and defects list. Lists of important oil-fired hydronic (hot water) heating boiler defects for residential buildings. What does a home inspector need to know about oil fired boilers and oil fired boiler defects? Home inspection training and education curriculum recommendations for oil fired heating boilers
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Oil fired heating boiler defect list:

This article lists significant Oil-Fired Heating boiler (hot water or hydronic heat) defects, definitions, and home inspection education topics.

The building defects and inspection points listed in these articles also guide homeowners and home buyers to building areas that merit careful attention and often point areas of safety concern or important maintenance and repair tasks.

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Home Inspection Education Curriculum - Heating Boiler Defects

Photograph of  a modern oil-fired heating boiler 4.3 Hot Water Heating Boilers - Hydronic Heating System Defects List

4.3.1 Knowledge Base for Oil Fired Heating Boilers

1.    Describe the function of a hot water (hydronic) heating system.

2.    Describe open and closed heating systems.

3.    Describe four types of distribution piping (series loop, 1-pipe system, 2-pipe system - direct return, 2-pipe system - reverse return).

4.    List the materials and components of a typical hot water heating system including

  • fuel storage and supply system,
  • burner,
  • combustion air supply,
  • venting,
  • cabinet/body,
  • heat exchanger,
  • controls,
  • expansion tank,
  • pump (circulators),
  • pipe,
  • radiator,
  • convector,
  • baseboard,
  • radiant heating.

5.    Describe the features of  adequate installation and repair technique for hot water heating systems.

6.    Outline the advantages and disadvantages of hot watering heating relative to forced air heating.

7.    Outline the differences between boilers and furnaces, including the normal operating cycles.

8.    Define the following terms with respect to hot water boilers:

  • convection,
  • conduction,
  • radiation,
  • super heated water,
  • pressure relief valve,
  • high temperature limit switch,
  • low water cut-out,
  • backflow preventer,
  • pressure reducing valve (automatic  water makeup),
  • automatic air vent,
  • primary control pump(circulator),
  • zone control,
  • outdoor air thermostat,
  • flow control valve,
  • isolating valve,
  • tankless coil,
  • radiator bleed valve,
  • radiator control valve,
  • air separator (air scoop),
  • aquastat,
  • open expansion tank,
  • closed expansion tank,
  • diaphragm (bladder) expansion tank,
  • side arm heater,
  • indirect water heater,
  • mixing valve(tempering valve),
  • condensing boilers.

9.    Outline the life expectancies of boilers made of various materials.

10.   Identify the codes or standards which apply to hot water heating systems in your area.


4.3.2 Inspection Skills for Oil Fired Heating Boilers

1.    Describe the inspection procedure for hot water heating systems.

2.    Identify the following common defects listed on the next page.

3.    Describe the implication of each defect.

4.    Identify safety issues for the inspector and occupant of the home (steam explosion, combustion product poisoning, electric shock, physical injury).

5.    Communicate findings to client verbally and in writing, recommending corrective action where needed.

4.3 Hot Water Heating Boilers, Typical Defects Lists

(Burners are not covered in this section since they have been covered earlier)


4.3.1 Knowledge Base for Gas Fired Boilers


1.    Describe the function of a hot water (hydronic) heating system.

2.    Describe open and closed heating systems.

3.    Describe four types of distribution piping (series loop, 1-pipe system, 2-pipe system - direct return, 2-pipe system - reverse return).

4.    List the materials and components of a typical hot water heating system including fuel storage and supply system, burner, combustion air supply, venting, cabinet/body, heat exchanger, controls, expansion tank, pump (circulators), pipe, radiator, convector, baseboard, radiant heating.

5.    Describe the features of  adequate installation and repair technique for hot water heating systems.

6.    Outline the advantages and disadvantages of hot watering heating relative to forced air heating.

7.    Outline the differences between boilers and furnaces, including the normal operating cycles.

8.    Define the following terms with respect to hot water boilers:

  • convection,
  • conduction,
  • radiation,
  • super heated water,
  • pressure relief valve,
  • high temperature limit switch,
  • low water cut-out, low water cutoff
  • backflow preventer,
  • pressure reducing valve (automatic  water makeup),
  • automatic air vent,
  • primary control pump (circulator),
  • zone control, outdoor air thermostat,
  • flow control valve,
  • isolating valve,
  • tankless coil,
  • radiator bleed valve,
  • radiator control valve,
  • air separator (air scoop),
  • aquastat,
  • open expansion tank,
  • closed expansion tank,
  • diaphragm (bladder) expansion tank,
  • side arm heater,
  • indirect water heater,
  • mixing valve (tempering valve), anti-scald valve
  • condensing boilers.

9.    Outline the life expectancies of boilers made of various materials.

10.   Identify the codes or standards which apply to hot water heating systems in your area.


4.3.2 Inspection Skills for Gas Fired Boilers


1.    Describe the inspection procedure for hot water heating systems.

2.    Identify the following common defects listed on the next page.

3.    Describe the implication of each defect.

4.    Identify safety issues for the inspector and occupant of the home (steam explosion, combustion product poisoning, electric shock, physical injury).

5.    Communicate findings to client verbally and in writing, recommending corrective action where needed.

HOT WATER BOILER TYPICAL DEFECTS

Gas Fired Boiler Heat Exchanger Defects

  • Clogged
  • Damaged
  • Leaks
  • Dirty
  • Rust
  • Scorching

Room Thermostat Defects - Gas Fired Hot Water Heat

  • Loose
  • Not level
  • Heat anticipator problems
  • Excess temperature rise
  • Poor adjustment or calibration
  • Poor location

Boiler Cabinet Defects

  • Combustible clearance
  • Mechanical damage
  • Missing components
  • Obstructed air intake
  • Leaks
  • Rust
  • Scorching
  • Rust

Oil-Fired Boiler Air Vent Defects

  • Too small
  • Waterlogged
  • Inoperative, damaged
  • Leaking
  • Poor location for tank
  • Poor discharge location for open tank

Hot Water Heating Circulator Pump or Relay Defects - Gas Fired Heating Systems

  • Missing
  • Obstructed
  • Hot
  • Inoperative
  • Leaks
  • Noisy

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Expansion Tank Defects

  • Improper position, location, type
  • Leaks
  • Noisy
  • Waterlogged [DF]

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Primary Control Defects

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Isolation Valve Defects

  • JDG autofill mehanisms

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Pump Control Defects

  • Set incorrectly

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Pressure Relief Valve Defects

  • Capped
  • Leaking
  • Missing
  • No piped extension
  • Inoperative
  • Pipe too small
  • Pipe threaded, capped or corroded at the bottom
  • Pipe dripping or leaking
  • Poor location
  • Routed to non-visible location
  • No Tundish (some jurisdictions)

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Zone Control Defects

  • Inoperative
  • Set wrong
  • Leaking
  • Wrong size

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Outdoor Air Defects

  • inadequate combustion air

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler High Limit Switch Defects

  • Inoperative
  • Defective, not wired correctly
  • Missing

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Flow Control Valve Defects

  • Set too high
  • Inoperative

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Low Water Cutoff Control Defects

  • Leaks
  • Inoperative

[not required in all jurisdictions]

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Isolation Valve Defects

  • Leaking
  • Inoperative

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Backflow Preventer Valve Defects

  • Leaks
  • Rust
  • Installed backwards
  • Leaking
  • Missing

Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Pressure Reducing Valve / Water Feed Valve Defects

  • Installed backwards
  • Leaking
  • Set improperly
  • Bypassed
  • Missing
  • Set too low

Mid & High Efficiency Oil-Fired Heating Boiler Defects

Hot Water Heating Piping Defects on Gas Fired Heating Boiler Systems

  • Crimped
  • Leaks
  • No insulation
  • Poor support
  • Rust

Oil-Fired Heating Boilers & Radiant Heating Systems

  • Balancing valve problems
  • Too small
  • Bleed valve problems
  • Cool rooms or parts of rooms
  • inoperative?

Oil-Fired Hot Water Heating Radiators, Convectors, Baseboards: Defects

  • Damaged baseboard fins
  • Noisy
  • Cold
  • Valves inoperative
  • Air bleeder missing, leaky, damaged
  • Bleed valve problems
  • Missing covers
  • Missing or removed heating sections or radiators
  • Leaks
  • Obstructed airflow
  • Poor location
  • Rust
  • Too small (cool rooms)

Tankless Coil on Oil-Fired Heating Boiler, Defects

  • Balancing valve problems
  • Leak
  • Cold
  • Rust
  • Poor hot water pressure or flow (clogged?)

Oil Burners, Oil Storage Tanks, Oil Piping: Typical Defects List

Heating Oil Storage Tank Defects

  • Abandoned, look for documentation of proper abandonment or signs of amateur work
  • Damaged or corroded
  • Empty
  • Leaks
  • Indoor tank used outdoors - Not suitable for outdoor use
  • Rusting
  • Inadequate support
  • Missing protection from vehicle damage
  • Unsafe location
  • Location too close to oil burner
  • Underground - investigate further for leaks, history, &c.

Oil-Fired Heater Combustion Chamber, Refractory / Fire Pot Defects

  • Crumbling, cracked, collapsed
  • Saturated
  • Oil soaked
  • Wet by boiler leaks

Oil Fired Heating Boiler Primary Control Defects List

  • Inoperative
  • Missing
  • Reset tripped, off on reset

Oil Tank Fill & Vent Piping Defects

  • Damaged or corroded
  • Leaks
  • Broken, missing tank gauge
  • Missing caps 

Barometric Damper, Draft Regulator Defects List

  • Improper location
  • Inadequate draft, air
  • Inoperative
  • Wired shut
  • Mis-adjusted (hangs open, won't open)
  • Removed
  • Missing
  • Rusted
  • Spillage
  • Soot

Heating Oil Supply Piping & Valves: Defects List

  • Corrosion, damage, crimped
  • Leaks - air in, oil out
  • Undersized
  • Exposed to damage

Oil Fired Boiler Venting & Flue Vent Connector Defects List

  • Improper material
  • Inadequate combustible clearance
  • Poor support
  • Poor Slope
  • Poor Connections
  • Improper manifolding
  • Poor insertion into chimney - too far, leaky, not sealed
  • Signs of water down flue into equipment or vent connectors
  • Rust, dirty, obstructed
  • Vent connector too big, too small
  • Vent connector too long

Heating Oil Filter Defects List

  • Dirty
  • Leaky
  • Missing

Oil Fired Heating Boiler Combustion Air Defects List

  • Inadequate combustion air
  • Air supply lost when boiler room door shut
  • Air supply exposed to high dust, clothes dryer

Oil Fired Heating Boiler Oil Burner Defects List

  • Dirty
  • Corroded vents
  • Excess temperature rise
  • Poor vent location, arrangement
  • Reliability
  • Sooting
  • Burn marks on boiler or furnace
  • Odors
  • Noises
  • Dirty blower assembly
  • Dirt-obstructed air intake
  • Evidence of amateur adjustment to controls or parts
  • Vibrating

Mid-Efficiency Oil Boiler (or Furnace) Defects List

  • Incomplete combustion – soot
  • Red Tagged
  • Off on reset
  • Inoperative
  • Leaking
  • Short Cycling
  • Vibrating
  • Noisy
  • Too close to combustibles

Use the Search Box at the top or bottom of these pages to find in-depth information about building, energy savings, and indoor environment inspection, diagnosis and repair at this website.

Watch out: these inspection lists do not list all possible defects for the systems discussed, and not all home or building inspectors will examine all of the items listed here.

These curriculae and building defect lists are based on smilar curriculum documents first prepared by Joe Scaduto, an ASHI member who prepared course material for Northeastern University's Building Inspection Certificate program in 1988, subsequently by DF, InspectApedia's editor, for New York University ca 1988 and later, with others, recommended to ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors.

ASHI did not adopt this material though currently that association as well as others offer extensive HOME INSPECTOR EDUCATION material.

The curriculum and lists of defects are informed by additional analysis of the process of home inspection that was developed beginning Calgary, AB for Canadian and U.S. home inspector education and certification examinations in 1997. Other early contributors to home inspection education in the U.S. and Canada include Dr. Jess Aronstein, Alan Carson, Mike Casey, Mark Cramer, John Cox, Dwight Barnett, Douglas Hansen, Rick Heyl, Larry Hoytt, Bill Merrill, Kevin O'Malley, Dennis Robitalille, Keith Peddie, Pat Porzio, Roger Robinson.

 

Continue reading at BOILERS, HEATING or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.

Or see OIL BURNER INSPECTION & REPAIR

Or see BUILDING DEFECTS LISTS - home

Suggested citation for this web page

DEFECTS LIST - HEAT BOILER OIL at InspectApedia.com - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice.

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