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Jotul woodstove at idle, low fire (C) D FriedmanWood Stoves
Wood Burning Stove installation, inspection, repair & safety

  • WOOD STOVE OPERATION & SAFETY - CONTENTS: What to do in the event of a chimney fire How to prevent chimney fires - US CPSC Safety Alert Document # 5047, supplemented & expanded. Metal chimney safety warning. Common causes of fires at woodstoves. Safety warnings about chimney fires & Metal Flues
  • POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about chimney fires, chimney causes, what to do if you have a chimney fire, & how to prevent a chimney fire
  • REFERENCES
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Wood burning stoves: selection, installation, inspection, repair & safety:

Here are photos and examples of the wood stove installation and safety details that can help prevent a chimney fire or house fire.

We discuss wood stove installation clearances from combustibles, wood stove draft control or heat output control, wood stove safety checkpoints (including some recommended by the U.S. CPSC) and heating with wood as a means of reducing building or home heating costs.

The article includes wood stove code citations, links to references & researech on using wood stoves, and reports of house or chimney fires related to wood stoves.



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Wood Stove, Coal Stove, or Fireplace Insert: Safety Checks

Photograph of a woodstove too close to paneling, a fire hazard at both the woodstove and its metal flue.

Before using your wood stove, coal stove in the coming or current heating season the US Consumer Product Safety Commission [since 1983 has] strongly urged you, if you have a [wood stove or coal stove] or fireplace connected to a metal chimney, to check for any damage that may have occurred in the past heating season.

[Click to enlarge any image]

Look for signs of structural failure, such as deformation, cracks, or holes. If it is difficult to examine the chimney, a local chimney repairman, chimney "sweep", or dealer can help. Have any damage repaired before using the heating device.

Most fires in metal factory-built chimneys occur because of improper installation (such as failure to provide proper fire clearance distances or heat shields or both), improper wood stove use or improper or inadequate maintenance such as permitting an unsafe level of creosote to accumulate in a chimney or flue.

The US CPSC staff has identified the following common causes of wood-stove related fires [supplemented by InspectApedia - Ed] :

US CPSC Sketch of a metal chimney and woodstove - clearances are not indicated.

Sketch - US CPSC. [Click to enlarge any image]

Even when the heating appliance is properly installed, people with both metal and masonry chimney systems should frequently check the chimney for creosote deposits, soot build-up or physical damage.

This flue safety check involves only a simple visual examination, but it should be done as often as twice a month during heavy use.

Signs of or causes of creosote accumulation in a chimney

At wood stoves where creosote is a particular hazard you may suspect creosote build-up if

If you see heavy creosote build-up, suspect a problem, or have had a chimney fire, a qualified chimney repairman or chimney "sweep" should perform a complete safety inspection. They can arrange for any necessary repairs or creosote removal, which must be done before the heating appliance is used again. Details are
at CREOSOTE FIRE HAZARDS.

The US Consumer Product Safety Commission advises owners of metal woodstove or fireplace insert chimneys to:

Jotul Woodstove installed by Paul Galow (C) Daniel Friedman

If you have had a fire or other safety problem with your chimney, please provide this information to the Commission by calling the Commission's toll-free Hotline 800-638-CPSC.

At FIRE CLEARANCES, WOOD & COAL STOVE FLUES we discuss heat shielding in detail, warning that even relatively low temperatures applied to nearby combustibles can can over time lower the combustion point of nearby combustible materials such as wood framing.
See PYROLYSIS EXPLAINED for those details.

How to Use the Wood Stove Draft Control to Control Heat Output

Watch out: people often leave the woodstove door open for a time after lighting the woodstove fire as a way to boost draft and get the fire going. But if you foreget and leave the door open, at least on some woodstoves and certainly on coal stoves or wood-oil combination boilers and furnaces, the result is a dangerously-overheated heating appliance that can either ruin the appliance (by warping the component parts) or it can set the building or chimney on fire.

Our tenant Stanley Pyrek left the door to our coal stove ajar to get a fire started, then forgot about it. The result was severe overheating of the coal stove, deforming the stove door and other parts so that the stove was no longer usable. This mistake also came close to setting the house on fire. It was an unforegttable experience.

Wood stove showing manual flue damper (C) Daniel Friedman

I'm not so sure the wood burning stove shown at left above is a fire-safe installation, but you can plainly see the manual flue damper handle (pointed-to by our blue arrow) in the rusty flue section about 30 inches above the top of the woodstove. When the damper handle's long axis is parallel to the flue the damper is in its fully open position.

Also see FIRE CLEARANCES, SINGLE WALL METAL FLUES & VENTS for a discussion of heat shielding at flue vent connectors.

Jotul Woodstove installed by Paul Galow (C) Daniel Friedman

Woodstoves also regulate the wood fire and thus stove temperature by adjusting the combustion air intake to the woodstove. Shown just above is a beautiful Jotul woodstove that I (DF) traded to Paul Galow for a fancy wristwatch. The orange arrow points to the woodstove air inlet draft control.

Chimney fire started at a woodstove (C) D Friedman

Watch out: if the incoming combustion air cannot be shut down because of leaky wood stove gaskets or other damage the wood stove is unsafe.

In our Norwegian Jotul woodstove photo at above right, Paul has installed air-spaced heat shields of ceramic tile mounted on fireproof board behind the stove and he added a heat shield (the silver contraption) on the side of the stove facing a bed just to slow down the heat in that direction.

That wood-box on the left side of the stove is a bit close in my OPINION but Mr. Galow is not much impressed by my caution.

Our photo at left illustrates a house fire that occurred when a wood burning heater was left running unattended.

Watch out: if the flue damper rusts or becomes damage it may be impossible to slow the chimney draft, resulting in an over-heating stove and possibly a chimney or house fire. Though questionable fire clearances and accumulated creosote may have been factors, just such a runaway wood stove fire and its disastrous results are illustrated
at CHIMNEY FIRE ACTION / PREVENTION (live link is given just below)

Readers wanting to understand how heat as low as 200 degF. can over time lower the combustion point of nearby combustible materials such as wood framing will want to see PYROLYSIS EXPLAINED

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Continue reading at FIRE CLEARANCES, WOOD & COAL STOVE FLUES or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.

Or see CHIMNEY FIRE ACTION / PREVENTION

Or see DEFECTS LIST - HEAT, WOOD APPLIANCE

Or see COMBUSTION AIR for WOODSTOVES

Suggested citation for this web page

WOOD STOVE OPERATION & SAFETY at InspectApedia.com - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice.

INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES: ARTICLE INDEX to ARTICLE INDEX to FIREPLACES COAL & WOODSTOVES

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