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AIR CONDITIONING & HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
DIAGNOSTIC GUIDES A/C / HEAT PUMP
DIAGNOSE & FIX HEATING PROBLEMS-BOILER
DIAGNOSE & FIX HEATING PROBLEMS-FURNACE
DUCT SYSTEM & DUCT DEFECTS
GAS LP & NATURAL GAS SAFETY HAZARDS
GEOTHERMAL HEATING SYSTEMS
HEAT PUMPS, DIAGNOSIS, REPAIR
HEATING COST SAVINGS METHODS
HEATING OIL TANKS
HEATING SYSTEM TYPES
MANUALS & PARTS GUIDES - HVAC
NOISE, HEATING SYSTEMS
ODORS FROM HEATING SYSTEMS
OIL SPILL CLEANUP / PREVENTION
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM DESIGNS
STEAM HEATING SYSTEMS
THERMOSTATS, HEATING / COOLING
VIDEO GUIDES: HEATING SYSTEMS
WOOD-OIL COMBINATION HEATERS
WOOD STOVE OPERATION & SAFETY
Heating boiler gauges: this article describes the combination pressure & temperature gauge found on most hydronic (hot water) heating systems. The boiler gauge gives helpful temperature or pressure readings that tell us if the boiler is operating normally.
The same pressure and temperature readings at a boiler can help diagnose problems such as TP valve leaks, cold radiators, and even boiler or heating system piping leaks. We give normal heating boiler pressure and temperature numbers and we explain what variations from these data signify.
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Typical pressure for a residential boiler serving a two story home would show 12 psi cold, and less than 30 psi hot. Over 30 psi boiler pressure will cause the pressure relief valve to open.
Typical operating temperature settings on a boiler call for a Low temperature (boiler cut-in) between 120 and 160 °F.
Typical operating temperatures on a hydronic boiler call for a high temperature (boiler cuts off) of 180-200 °F.
Over 200 degrees F. we're at risk of spilling at the pressure temperature relief valve.
Typical operating temperature observed at the gauge will be below the high, and can be as low as nighttime room temperature in non-heating season if no tankless coil is in use.
The temperature/pressure gauge may help in checking for normal conditions before and during boiler operation.
This boiler pressure and temperature gauge shows a typical in-boiler pressure of under 20 psi, and a temperature of about 190 °F. (The boiler had just cut off on a heating cycle.)
What Are the Normal Hot and Cold Operating Pressures of Residential Hydronic (hot water) Heating Boilers?
On a residential heating boiler the automatic water-feeder/pressure reducing valve that automatically provides makeup water to the heating boiler if pressure drops below 12 psi. So 12 psi is the typical "cold" pressure for residential boilers.
If your building is taller than two floors, the installer may have needed to boost the starting "cold" water pressure for your boiler to overcome the hot water distribution piping head pressure - otherwise your heating circulators may not be able to circulate hot water.
At PUMP, WATER PRESSURE BOOSTING we explain the relationship between building height and water pressure, and we illustrate the water pressure decrease in building water supply piping with building height. But a look at the basement water pressures in this illustration also explains the pressures that a basement located hot water heating circulator pump has to overcome.
12 psi is for typical U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal cold temperature starting pressure. U.K. and european heating systems should be pressurized to between 1 and 1.5 bar - cold.
20 psi is typical for U.S. / Canadian residential heating systems normal hot operating temperature, up to just under 30 psi, depending on the high-limit temperature setting on the boiler limit control. If we set the boiler high-limit much over 210, on many residential systems the system pressure will exceed 30 psi and we'll see water leaking from the pressure/temperature relief valve - ultimately an unsafe condition.
Pressure and Temperature gauge on heating boilers: this gauge displays the heating boiler internal pressure and temperature.
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