Tankless coil leak (C) Daniel Friedman Heating Boiler Chemicals, Treatments, Leak-Stop

  • CHEMICAL TREATMENTS, BOILER - CONTENTS: description of chemicals & treatments used in hot water boilers, steam boilers, & other heating equipment: boiler water chemistry, corrosion control, leak repair, stop-leak products.
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Heating boiler chemicals, treatments, & leak-stop:

Tthis article describes various chemical additives & treatments used in hot water & steam heating equipment to condition water, prevent corrosion, adjust pH, and to stop boiler leaks.

We list products & product sources, describe boiler chemical properties, and include links to the products' MSDS information. We also discuss & link to additional heating equipment troubleshooting information such as how to find and fix leaks.

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Heating Boiler Chemical Additives, Treatments, & Stop-Leak Boiler Liquids

Hercules (Oatey) Boiler Liquid stop-leak - www.oatey.com

Article Contents

Reader Question: using Leak-Stop in a Hydronic Heating Boiler: how to fix clogged zone valves & air bleeders

2/4/2014 Ray said: [originally posted at ZONE VALVES, HEATING]

I have had a small boiler leak, I put a quart of Hercules Sealer in my boiler,It stopped the small leak, now it seams like my zone valves (Automag) are not opening when the zone calls for heat, or maybe my automatic air valves on my baseboard heat trim may be plugged, Should I now drain my system to clean out excess sealer, what do you suggest? \

[Click to enlarge any image]


Ray, I took a look at the Hercules Boiler Liquid described as stop-leak for warnings about clogging of zone valves or circulators and didn't see any warning. It is significant that at least some of the products I reviewed, including Hercules Boiler Liquid explicitly assert that they do not clog heating systems. Quoting:

Seals and repairs cracks and leaks in steam and hot water systems. This liquid formula will not clog hot water coils, controls, valves, or vents. Forms a tough seal that expands and contracts with heat. Resists high pressure and is not affected by boiler cleaners. No odors - no priming - no foaming. Does not contain petroleum distillates.

Compatible with Hercules cryo-tek or other types of propylene glycol-based anti-freeze products, chemical additives and boiler treatment compounds. NSF registered/USDA authorized.

Hercules maintenance and stop-leak products. They are formulated for high performance and developed with both the user and the environment in mind. Hercules "clean and friendly" furnace cement is the latest example of this commitment. Its patented formula is the first and only to meet OSHA's requirement of less than .1% crystalline silica. - retrieved 2/4/14 original source  http://herchem.net/Products/heatingproducts.html

Watch out: nevertheless a quick search for "boiler leak stopper clogging" will indeed disclose some complaints by HVAC techs and others who cite occasional problems with clogged check valves, boiler drains, and other components following boiler stop-leak products. Typically the complaints I found did not name the product used.

So a clogged zone valve or air bleed valve does not sound out of the question. Indeed once the stop-leak has seated and sealed at the actual leak point you may need to remove and clean or replace valves and other clogged system components. I'm doubtful that simply flushing the system will remove a stop-leak (or other debris or goop) material that has already packed itself into a heating system valve. - search results saved 2/4/14 on file

Steps in Un-Clogging your Stop-Leak Clogged Boiler [suspected cause]

1. If your zone valves have a manual-open position and latch, use that to move the zone valve open - at least you'll have heat, and moving the valve (rarely) might free it up

2. Try (with the heating system cooled down) opening and cleaning a manual air bleeder if that's what you've got; if you've got only the float type air bleeder devices, indeed the bottom opening or float could be stuck. Those are inexpensive devices; I'd remove an old one, allow a small amount of boiler water (ounces) to blow out the mount opening, and install a new one.

3. Depending on where the boiler leak was, is it possible your system is air bound? If so we can point you to diagnosing and fixing that problem.

4. If removal of a boiler component confirms that it was clogged, I would contact the company for advice. But before calling them, review the product use instructions I quote below - it might save some embarrassment.

Hercules Chemical Company, Inc.
111 South Street
Passaic, NJ 07055 USA
(973) 778-5000
TEL 800-221-9330
FAX 800-333-3456
EMail: Info@herchem.com

Product instructions for the Hercules boiler liquid you used are quoted from the company's information

For low-pressure steam and hot water boilers including all one or two pipe house-heating systems, vapor and vacuum systems: Make sure water level is below product addition point. Remove safety valve on top of boiler. Pour in Hercules boiler liquid through the safety valve opening. Replace safety valve. Fill boiler with water and allow pressure to go as high as safety valve will permit. Even though the leak stops, keep at normal operating temperature from 24 to 48 hours after all the leaks are stopped. When leaks are severe, it is easier to lower the water below the lowest leak, and pour in Hercules boiler liquid , filling the boiler slowly, and keeping the water extremely hot.

For new heating installations: Partly fill boiler. Fire to normal operating temperature. Remove safety plug or fitting, depending on type of boiler, and pour in to opening 1 to 2 quarts of boiler liquid . Close opening and fill system gradually, maintaining heat until circulation is complete and all leaks have stopped. Note: If leak prevents firing of boiler, pour Boiler Liquid into the boiler at any opening nearest the leak. This should stop leak enough to fire the boiler.

For high-pressure boilers: Have the boiler at working pressure. Pour in boiler liquid through the pump, injector, feed water or any convenient way. This liquid can be diluted with hot water to make it easier to use. The objective is to get the liquid into the boiler the simplest and quickest way. Use one part boiler liquid to 100 to 200 parts water according to the size of the leak.

For hot water heating systems: Drain system until water is below plug at top of boiler. Pour boiler liquid into opening on top of boiler. Replace plug. Refill system slowly, keeping heat above 140°F and making sure all leaks are covered by water.

Continue filling and running system until leaks are sealed. Use 1 quart boiler liquid f or each 400-sq. ft. radiation. For large leaks, double the amount. Boiler liquid can be used to repair leaks above the water line by filling the boiler above the leak and holding it for several days. The greater the quantity of boiler liquid used and the hotter the fire, the quicker the leak will stop. 
- Hercules product literature, retrieved 1/4/14, source cited below

Boiler Leak-Stop Product Sources

I list Hercules boiler liquid stop leak first because it's the product used by the reader above and because it's widely available at heating suppliers and from other sources. A common ingredient in many of the boiler stop-leak products listed below is sodium silicate. Some products contain additional or alternative chemicals and sealants.

Watch out: the long term performance of any leak stopping additive (in our OPINION) and even the advisability of its use depend on a number of variables including the size, location and nature of the leak, the materials involved, and other factors. Be sure to read the manufacturer's instructions. A cracked boiler or radiator or similar heating components that bursts can be dangerous and in any event may risk extensive building water damage or even costly mold contamination if the leak is not found and water removed promptly.

  • Hercules boiler liquid leak-stop treatment (illustration at above left) is available from heating suppliers and many hardware stores or building supply stores. Information about the product (excerpted below) is available from oatey.com.
    Contact: Hercules Chemical Company, Inc. 111 South Street, Passaic, NJ 07055-9100 Phone: 800-221-9330 • Fax: 800-333-3456 e-mail: info@herchem.com http://www.herchem.com
    The Hercules boiler liquid Stop-leak [PDF for boiler liquid 485] product information and spec-sheet #S00030 (August 2003) is also available from the company's website.

    Seals and repairs cracks or leaks in steam or hot water heating boilers. Prevents steam boiler surging and will not clog or coat submerged hot water heating coils, controls, vents or valves. Makes a strong, lasting repair on difficult leaks in steam boilers. Tough seal expands and contracts with heat, resists pressure, and is not affected by boiler cleaners. Will not cause priming or foaming. Boiler liquid combines instantly with water in the boiler. As the water leaks through the crack, it is vaporized and the oxygen in the air transforms the boiler liquid into a strong, solid substance.

    The heat generated by the boiler further hardens the seal. Contains no petroleum distillates and is safe to use in boilers and systems with plastic or rubber components. Boiler liquid can be used o™n new installations to repair leaky joints, sand holes, etc., which may appear after an installation is completed. Ideal for older installations where corrosion causes leaks and cracks that need to be sealed.

    - Oatey.com (2003)
  • Hercules 30310 Boiler Leak Stop powdered form (also see Hercules® Boiler Solder) is also used to seal cracks & leaks in hot water or steam boilers.
    Quoting product literature:

    Powdered stop-leak quickly finds and seals trouble spots on cracked steam or hot water heating boilers. Forms a tough seal that expands and contracts with boiler metal. Resists high pressure and temperature. Once set, seal will not be dislodged by boiler cleaners. No odors. Petroleum-free.

    Will not clog system, valves and vents or interfere with normal boiler operation. Will not harm rubber or plastic parts. Compatible with Hercules cryo-tek or other types of propylene glycol based anti-freeze products, chemical additives and boiler treatment compounds.
  • Hercules Base Hit™ II, seals and prevents leaks in non-ferrous and radiant-tube hydronic systems.
    Quoting product literature: Seals and prevents leaks in ferrous, non-ferrous and radiant tube hydronic systems. Works fast and does not clog vents, valves, pneumatic tanks, circulator impellers, coils or controls. Normal operation of the system is not affected. Equally effective on steel, cast iron or copper. Add to old or new installations for leak protection and moving part wear prevention. Compatible with Hercules cryo-tek or other types of propylene glycol-based anti-freeze products, chemical additives and boiler treatment compounds. Will not harm rubber or plastic components. NSF registered/USDA authorized. - retrieved 2/4/14 original source  http://herchem.net/Products/heatingproducts.html
  • Black Swan Liquid Boiler Stop-Leak, Black Swan Manufacturing Co. 4540 W. Thomas Street Chicago, IL 60651-3318 1-800-252-5796 Fax: 1-773-227-3705, Website: http://blackswanmfg.com
    The product MSDS indicates that the product is not hazardous; ingredients are not listed.
    Quoting product literature:

    Black Swan Liquid Boiler Stop-Leak is a superior liquid product designed to make lasting repairs on steam and hot water boilers. This product works on high and low pressure heating systems and withstands high temperatures, high pressure, expansion, contraction and vibration. Will not interfere with the operation of the system and the system will not have to be shut down to use the product.

    Boilers sometimes have leaks. The reasons range from cracks, imperfect pipe threads, rust, defective castings, etc. Liquid Boiler Stop-Leak is a "sticky" liquid combined with heavy duty particles. Liquid Boiler Stop-Leak when poured into a leaking boiler flows directly to the leak and the particles plug up the opening and stick to it. Over a period of time these particles will become very hard and form a permanent seal.
  • Boiler Weld, liquid stop-leak, Utility Chemicals, 700 Main St., Westbury NY 11590, Tel: 516-997-6300, Website: http://www.utilitychemicals.com The company sells Boiler Weld, Qwik-Seal, a non-metallic sealer for steam systems, and Hydro-Seal+4 liquid leak sealant for hot water heating systems, a product that includes a rust inhibitor and lubricant. Contains sodium silicate.
  • PurePro Boiler Weld Liquid Part# 41-135 OR Boiler Weld Powder Part# 41-222. PurePro, Amherst, NY, Tel: 781-272-6600 Website: http://pureproproducts.com
    Quoting: PurePro’s Boiler Weld Powder or Boiler Weld Liquid will not affect existing seals in the system and can be left in the system. For small openings or when location of leak is unknown, use Boiler Weld Liquid. The liquid product MSDS indicates that the components are sodium silicate, morpholine, and clarified quebracho.
  • Safe Boiler Stop Leak, Silver King Manufacturing Col, Tel: 1-800-638-0237, Email: silverking@silverkingmfg.com Website: http://www.silverkingmfg.com
    Quoting product information: safe to use in all boilers, contains no petroleum or hazardous components, will not sludge or clog, will not surge, compatible with propylene glycol and ethylene glycol antifreeze. Used in all steel and cast iron boilers.

Reader Question: how to repair a pinhole leak in copper baseboard

Im a journeyman plumber and I know how to braze but I'm not sure how to go about repairing a pinhole leak in a copper hot water baseboard heater. Obviously it has to be dry before I can braze it but how do I drain it and once repaired how do I properly fill it up with water and bleed the excess air?

Reply: solder repairs of small leaks in copper heating baseboard piping

The proper repair of a pinhole leak in copper piping would be soldering not brazing. But you'll most likely need to remove the water from the baseboard heater first. Or one can cut out a bad section of tubing or piping and solder in a short section with unions and copper piping of the same diameter. Be sure to properly sand and prep the copper pipe surfaces, remove any burs, and use a soldering paste or flux to assure a good solder connection.

Watch out: often the presence of a single pinhole leak is an indicator of more trouble ahead. Corrosion, or too-thin or defective copper piping may be prone to developing multiple leaks. I'd go ahead and patch or repair the present leak, but I'd keep an eye on the building heating distribution piping and baseboards for more leaks down the road.

Reader Question: are steam radiator leaks dangerous?

Josh asked: I have an old one pipe steam radiator that has a small crack about 8 inches up. It drips a bit but my concern is the steam. Is this dangerous to have expelled into the air as far as breathing quality. I am not sure If it is a health issue. I have some concerns about having It replaced with a cheap one from china. Thanks so much for your help. - Josh (also by email) J.F. Thank you so much for your help.

R said: Today at work, a few pipes and radiators blew in some of the rooms. The leak and steam got so bad you could hardly see your hand held out in front of your face. I was in there for a while trying to find the shut off for the water and keeping the water from leaking out into the hall. I was breathing all that steam in for quite some time and I was wondering if there is anything I should be worried about. My lungs and eyes were a little irritated, but I am wondering if there could be something more. - R. 1/30/2014



A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem with leaky radiators, including possible hidden damage from prior or long-standing leaks.

That said, here are some things to consider:

  • Steam is water vapor, and having been boiled, would not be itself a health concern but

    Watch out: steam vapor can cause burns.
  • A leak of condensate out of your radiator (such as the leak shown at page top of this article) into the building structure risks rot, mold, damage
  • It might be possible, when the radiator is cold, to repair the crack using a high temperature-resistant epoxy - you'll need to clean the surfaces first. Also,

    Watch out for lead paint on old radiators (see LEAD POISONING HAZARDS GUIDE)

Follow-up comment: Harmful chemicals in steam from steam boilers?

Thanks for the quick reply Daniel. I was unsure if chemicals were commonly used in the w

Reply to R about steam radiator leaks & chemical exposure:

While residential and most commercial steam systems operate at very low pressure - under 1 psi, there are some commercial systems that work at higher numbers - where an actual explosion would be potentially dangerous.

I am GUESSING that you are talking about a low pressure steam system and a failure of one or more steam vents on radiators - or an actual burst steam pipe.

The immediate dangers would be steam burns, or if vision is obscured, other obvious hazards like not being able to see to get safely out of the building.

Past those immediate worries, you will want to find out what boiler additive chemicals were being used in the steam system in your building, then to look at the MSDS exposure guidelines for those products. Without that data, an immediate answer to your question would be just speculation.

As I note in the article above,

Check with your boiler service company and take a look at the boiler service tag - let me know if any additives were used in your system (unlikely in residential steam boilers) and we can research further by reviewing the MSDS for those products.

Corrosive liquids used in some treatment compounds are skin, lung, and eye irritants (and considered unlikely to be ingested), but you would not expect to find these being released at harmful levels into occupied space from a steam radiator steam leak, since the same steam is also vented quite normally through steam radiator vents during normal system operation.

Let us know what chemicals were in use and if needed I'll be glad to do some further research.

With any chemical, even distilled water, the poison is in the dose.

List of common chemicals found in steam boiler water treatment compounds and reference to their MSDS information

Photograph of an open top gravity type storage type steel water tankIndeed some steam heat systems, usually commercial, may contain

  • anti frothing agents and
  • anti corrosive or anti scale agents that remove oxygen from the water and
  • control boiler water pH, or to
  • keep minerals such as calcium and magnesium in suspension (glycerin,
  • Sulfites to remove oxygen, prevent corrosion,
  • alkalinity boosters to reduce the pH and thus control corrosion, phosphates and
  • polymers to keep minerals in suspension and thus reduce scale formation, and amines to "boost condensate" to further reduce corrosion)and it would be reasonable to be worried about some of those chemicals in the boiler water itself. [1] [2] [5]]

For an explanation of pH and its importance see WELL DISINFECTANT pH ADJUSTMENT

Carbonic acid (H2CO3) formation in heating boilers

Carbonic acid (H2CO3) formation in heating boilers and the resultant need for boiler water treatment:

Carbonic acid (H2CO3) build-up in hot water heating systems can occur in areas where the pH of your boiler water is below 8.5 or where other heating system malfunctions cause this inorganic corrosive acid to accumulate in hot water piping.

High carbonic acid, like excessive oxygen levels in heating water, can lead to hot water piping leaks, water damage, and loss of heat in the building. In a steam heating system, condensing steam dissolves carbon dioxide (CO2) to form carbonic acid that in turn corrodes piping.

Ask your heating technician if your boiler water needs treatment or if your system needs additional venting equipment to remove excessive gases from the heating water.

Treatment chemicals for acidic boiler water may include lime and soda ash (COH), phosphate, chelates, oxygen scavengers, neutralizing amines, or filming amines, all designed to protect the heating system boiler and piping from acidic corrosion.

Check with your boiler service company and take a look at the boiler service tag - let me know if any additives were used in your system (unlikely in residential steam boilers) and we can research further by reviewing the MSDS for those products.

Corrosive liquids used in some treatment compounds are skin, lung, and eye irritants (and considered unlikely to be ingested), but you would not expect to find these being released at harmful levels into occupied space from a steam radiator steam leak, since the same steam is also vented quite normally through steam radiator vents during normal system operation.

  • Phosphate polymer blends are generally considered non-hazardous [3][4]
  • Sodium Hydroxide (a boiler cleaner) is a corrosive liquid [4]
  • Boiler water treatments containing Sodium bisulfite, liquid caustic potash, and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid NA salt or liquid NAOH, or cyclohexamine are also corrosive liquids [4]
  • Sodium bisulfite (an oxygen scavenger) is an irritant and may be packaged as a steam boiler water treatment along with liquid caustic potash, a corrosive liquid [4]
  • Aqueous ammonia used in some steam boiler water treatment chemicals is toxic by ingestion and is a lung irritant [4]
  • Amines used in boiler water treatment chemicals (morpholine or cyclohexamine) in concentrated forms are flammable and are eye and lung irritants [4]
  • Also see see BOILER CHEMICALS 101 [PDF] provided by NCDENR.

Try JB-Weld Epoxy for Cracked Home Heating Radiator Repairs?

Some readers have reported and we consider that it may be possible to repair a small crack or leak in a cast iron radiator using an epoxy product.

One source to consider (we have not tried this) is JB-Weld, a producer of a range of epoxy and sealant products sold most readily in automotive supply stores and some building supply stores. customerservice@jbweld.com.

However if the radiator leak or crack is not in a location at which you can thoroughly clean and prep the surface, we're doubtful about this approach.

For repairing leaks in cisterns see CAULKS, NONTOXIC or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.

Reader Question: use of wetting agents to improve hydronic heating boiler heat transfer efficiency

23 March 2015 Karl R. said:
Have you ever used chemicals to increase the operating efficiency of a hydronic heating system.....ie : so-called "Water Wetter" products ? These products function by reducing the surface tension and lowering the specific gravity (viscosity) of water....thereby increasing the thermal conductivity and the ability of water to transfer heat to the end radiation method ? If so, were the results every measured and tabulated ?



You ask an interesting question and indeed a literature review (reported at REFERENCES) finds a very large body of research on heat transfer and the effects of deposits of precipitates, corrosion, velocity, turbulence, and additives across a wide range of heat transfer components studied by experts.

Water Wetter such as Red Line's "WaterWetter®" is an automotive cooling system additive used in racing engines [redlineoil dot com] sold at about $12. U.S.D. per 12-ounces and including a corrosion inhibitor (intended to address the corrosion that occurs in aluminum-core automobile radiators) and a wetting agent that improves heat transfer between very hot engine parts such as the automobile engine's cylinder wall and the cooling fluid and cylinder heads and cooling fluid. One bottle treats 3-5 gallons of liquid. (Thus the cost of treatment of the volume of water in a typical heating system would be a bit pricey).

In hydronic heating systems (hot water heating boilers) the operating temperatures are nowhere near that of an automobile engine, and from my reeading the properties of heating water flow inside of radiators and baseboards is also different in nature: with great turbulence that improves heat transfer and without the development of laminar flows or cavitation that can reduce heat transfer in an automotive engine. In automobile racing such as dragsters using nitro fuels, still higher temperatures probably make even a small improvement in cooling significant.

Here are excerpts from the company's technical literature that explains how water-wetter works in automotive racing engines.

Water has twice the heat transfer capability when compared to 50% glycol antifreeze/coolant in water. Most passenger automobiles have a cooling system designed to reject sufficient heat under normal operating conditions using a 50/50 glycol solution in water. However, in racing applications, the use of water and WaterWetter® will enable the use of smaller radiator systems, which means less frontal drag, and it will also reduce cylinder head temperatures, even when compared to water alone, which means more spark advance may be used to improve engine torque

... The conventional spark ignition gasoline engine is not a very efficient powerplant. A considerable amount of the available fuel energy must be rejected from the metal combustion chamber parts by the coolant and dispersed to the atmosphere through the radiator. This heat rejection is necessary in order to prevent thermal fatigue of the pistons, cylinder walls, and the cylinder head. Another problem is that the combustion chamber must be cooled enough to prevent preignition and detonation. The higher the combustion chamber temperatures, the higher the octane number required to prevent preignition and detonation. Since the octane of the available fuel is limited, increasing temperatures in the combustion chamber require retarding the spark timing which reduces the peak torque available. Higher inlet temperatures also reduce the density of the fuel/air mixture, reducing available torque further. For these reasons reducing the flow of heat to the coolant usually reduces the efficiency of the engine  

... Red Line WaterWetter® can reduce cooling system temperatures compared to glycol solutions and even plain water. Water has excellent heat transfer properties in its liquid state, but very high surface tension makes it difficult to release water vapor from the metal surface. Under heavy load conditions, much of the heat in the cylinder head is transferred by localized boiling at hot spots, even though the bulk of the cooling solution is below the boiling point. Red Line's unique WaterWetter® reduces the surface tension of water by a factor of two, which means that much smaller vapor bubbles will be formed. Vapor bubbles on the metal surface create an insulating layer which impedes heat transfer. Releasing these vapor bubbles from the metal surface can improve the heat transfer properties in this localized boiling region by as much as 15% ...
- Redline Synthetic Oil Corp. (ret. 2015).

There does not seem to be evidence supporting use of an automotive racing product wetting agent in heating systems and a literature review to date has not (at least yet) found research supporting wetting agents for heat transfer improvement in hydronic heating systems as being as significant or important as other additives addressing foaming or other heat transfer impediments.

  • "WaterWetter(R) SuperCoolant with Rust & Corrosion Inhibitor Technical Information", Red Line Synthetic Oil Corp., 6100 Egret Court, Benicia CA 94510 USA, Tel: 707 745 6100 , - retrieved 23 March 2015, original source http://www.redlineoil.com/content/files/tech/WaterWetter%20Tech%20Info.pdf 
  • At REFERENCES see Research citing heat transfer & hydronic heating boiler including wetting agents



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