Linoleum-like floor covering - linoleum rug (C) InspectApedia CWHow to Inspect & Test to Identify Sheet Flooring that May Contain Asbestos
     


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Asbestos-containing sheet flooring or resilient flooring product testing & visual inspection for identification of linoleum, asphalt-saturated felt based flooring, vinyl & cork floors. This article describes simple visual inspection and testing using odorless paint thinner or turpentine to separate true linoleum or cork floors from possible, probable, or known asbestos-containing resilient sheet flooring.

This article also provides links to certified asbestos test labs should testing be needed. Our page top photo, contributed by a reader, contains visual clues indicating that this is a saturated felt backed sheet flooring product that may contain asbestos.

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How to Research, Inspect & Test Sheet Flooring to Distinguish Asphalt-saturated felts, Linoleum, Vinyl & Cork Materials

Armstrong sheet flooring (C) InspectAPedia.com

This sheet flooring was identified by a reader in a 1964 home. She found remnants in the bottom of a kitchen cabinet on which was imprinted "Armstrong". Is it linoleum?

[Click to enlarge any image]

A closer look at the product including its backing would be needed. It could be, but this pattern looks more modern to us and is probably a vinyl sheet flooring product.

At ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE IDENTIFICATION PHOTOS by YEAR we include a reader report of lab testing performed on this flooring and confirming that it contained "70% asbestos".

Check the building age and probable flooring age

See FLOORING MATERIAL AGE

Visual Inspection of Sheet Flooring Backer Material

A laboratory test is necessary, using a certified asbestos test lab, to be certain that a material does not contain asbestos. But some visual and other simple tests can give reliable results.

True linoleum sheet flooring: check the back surface of the sheet flooring to look for a coarse brown fabric (jute) - indicating traditional non-asbestos-containing linoleum. This is a true linoleum product. Take a look at the antique linoleum flooring shown below - this is a burlap or jute backed product. More photo examples and linoleum identification aids are
at LINOLEUM & SHEET FLOORING.

PHOTO of interior floor covering, pre-vinyl, probably linocrusta with burlap fabric backing, Justin Morrill House, Vermont, ca 1845 - 1900

Asphalt-felt-based sheet flooring: check the back surface of the sheet flooring for black paper-like material that resembles roofing felt - indicating older sheet flooring products that may contain asbestos in the backer. In our reader-provided photo just below, the torn sheet flooring shows its asphalt-saturated felt backer even without turning the material over for inspection. It would be prudent to assume that at least the felt backing for this flooring material contains asbestos.

Linoleum-like floor covering - linoleum rug (C) InspectApedia CW

Asphalt-saturated felt (paper) backed flooring, used as early as 1910 in the U.S., looks like but is not linoleum flooring. Armstrong's Linoflor, produced beginning in 1937, is an asphalt-based-backer sheet flooring that some referred to and continue to refer to (in my opinion loosely) as "linoleum", adding to the generic use of that word for sheet flooring. - Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007)

Vinyl sheet flooring: check the back surface of the sheet flooring for white or light colored backer material. Some of these older sheet flooring products up to the early 1980's may contain asbestos.

This product may also look like linoleum bit is almost certainly a vinyl product. But without knowing the age of this flooring type we cannot be sure if its backer or fillers contain asbestos or not. The floor at below left was tested and shown to be asbestos free. The flooring backer shown at below right, from a floor dating before 1980, may contain asbestos.

Modern vinyl sheet flooring Armstrong sheet flooring (C) InspectApedia LT

  • Cork flooring: tiles or sheet flooring. Cork flooring is easily recognized by visual inspection as it looks like ... well, cork fragments glued together. Cork flooring does not contain asbestos. However Armstrong and possibly some other vinyl-asbestos or asphalt asbestos floor tile manufacturers produced those floor tiles in a cork pattern that is similar to true cork. The difference, however, is apparent on close inspection of the floor surface. The cork tile patterns (as opposed to true cork) are a printed-on design rather than glued-together cork fragments.

    The flooring at below left is a true cork floor section. We show a fragment of cork flooring at below right. [Click to enlarge any image].

    Cork floor, Vassar College (C) Daniel Friedman Cork flooring (C) Daniel Friedman

    Below we illustrate a 1960's Armstrong vinyl asbestos floor tile in the company's cork pattern. This asphalt and then vinyl asbestos flooring was produced beginning in the 1950's.

    Solid vinyl floor tiles from the 1960's typically contain asbestos (C) Daniel FriedmanArmstrong vinyl asbestos floor tile in cork pattern (C) InspectApedia

 

Solvent Tests for Flooring Identification

Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007) give some helpful suggestions for flooring type identification using a simple solvent. Solvent testing can provide some (but not complete) identifying information about both sheet flooring and resilient tile flooring. The authors recommend using turpentine, but for a less smelly mess I'd also add the use of odorless paint thinner as your test solvent. Wilson & Snodgrass explain that

If a clean, white cloth moistened with a solvent such as turpentine does not take up the color of the flooring when it is rubbed in a small, inconspicuous, unwaxed area, the flooring is vinyl.

The color will transfer to the cloth if the flooring is asphalt or rubber. A search of historic records or laboratory testing may be needed to distinguish between asphalt and rubber flooring. - Wilson & Snodgrass, U.S. FPL (2007)

Watch out: if the flooring is not clean you may be confused by dirt or old wax coatings transferring to your test cloth.

Watch out: when choosing a solvent, in just about any cleaning or investigation procedure it's best to start with the most mild and safe ingredients possible. I would not use lacquer thinner which is likely to damage the floor surface. Other solvents such as hexane are used in our forensic lab for a reliable confirmation of rubber and some other materials, but this solvent is dangerous to handle and may be carcinogenic as well. Even alcohol (iso propanol) that is readily available can create a mess if you try it on an alcohol-soluble painted surface. Stick to odorless paint thinner.

Certified Asbestos Testing Laboratory Tests for Asbestos in Flooring

If you are facing significant building renovation, remodeling or cleanup costs that include disturbing asbestos-suspect flooring, ceiling paints, insulation, or other hazardous materials, it makes sense to ask for a hazard confirmation by a certified asbestos testing laboratory.

Suspected or Presumed Asbestos Containing Material Floor Sample Preparation

Typically an asbestos test lab needs only a small representative sample of flooring material to test for asbestos - about a square inch of intact material. If the existing floor has a damaged or loose section it may be possible to simply pick up a fragment, bag it in a clean Ziplok™ type freezer bag and label it for mailing to the laboratory.

For larger segments it may be possible to clean-cut a sample using a utility knife, with wetting if needed to avoid creating a possible asbestos dust hazard. [McCrone (1987) describes laboratory procedures that require breaking the sheet or tile flooring sample to leave fibers exposed for direct examination.]

Best advice: ask your certified asbestos test laboratory what sample collection, packaging and handling procedures they require.

ASBESTOS TESTING LAB LIST provides contact information for sources of currently-certified asbestos testing laboratories.

Please do not mail flooring samples nor anything else to us at InspectApedia unless we have agreed by prior discussion. Please do not mail whole sheets, boxes of multiple tiles etc. The test laboratory does not need so much material and does not want to have to dispose of it.

Identify Sheet Flooring & Resilient Floor Manufacturers, Brands & Styles

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SHEET FLOORING INSPECT / TEST at InspectApedia.com - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice.

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