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EXTERIORS of buildings
ADHESIVES, EXTERIOR CONSTRUCTION
AGE of a BUILDING - how to determine
ALGAE, FUNGUS, LICHENS, MOSS
ANIMAL ENTRY POINTS in buildings
ANIMAL ODORS IN buildings
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN buildings
ATTIC CONDENSATION CAUSE & CURE
BEST CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES GUIDE
BOOKSTORE - EXTERIORS
CAULK GUN TYPES, CHOICES
CAULKS & SEALANTS, EXTERIOR
CONNECTORS, FASTENERS, TIES
DECK & PORCH CONSTRUCTION
EIFS & STUCCO EXTERIORS
EXTERIOR WALL SIDING TRIM & FINISHES
EXTRACTIVE BLEEDING STAINS
FLASHING MEMBRANES PEEL & STICK
FLASHING SIDING DETAILS
FLASHING WALL DETAILS
FLASHING WINDOW DETAILS
GALVANIC SCALE & METAL CORROSION
GLUES ADHESIVES, EXTERIOR CONSTRUCTION
GUTTERS & DOWNSPOUTS
HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS
HOUSEWRAP / SHEATHING WRAP
HOUSEWRAP INSTALLATION DETAILS
HOUSEWRAP PRODUCT CHOICES
HOUSEWRAP at SILLS, SOLES, TOP PLATES
HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET
INDOOR AIR QUALITY & HOUSE TIGHTNESS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
KIT HOMES, Aladdin, Sears, Wards, Others
LEAD POISONING HAZARDS GUIDE
LEED GREEN BUILDING CERTIFICATION
LOG HOME GUIDE
METAL LATH, PLASTER & STUCCO
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
ODORS & SMELLS DIAGNOSIS & CURE
PAINT & STAIN GUIDE, EXTERIOR
PAINT FALURE, DIAGNOSIS, CURE, PREVENTION
PAINT FAILURE DICTIONARY
PAINT SURFACE PREPARATION
PORCHES & Sunrooms
PORCH CONSTRUCTION & SCREENING
ROT RESISTANT LUMBER
ROT, TIMBER FRAME
ROT, TIMBER ASSESSMENT
SEARS KIT HOUSES
SMELL PATCH TEST to Track Down Odors
SOUND CONTROL in buildings
STAINS on & in BUILDINGS, CAUSES & CURES
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS
STONE CLEANING METHODS
STUCCO WAll FAILURES DUE TO WEATHER
STUCCO WALL METHODS & INSTALLATION
TEST KITS for DUST, MOLD, PARTICLE TESTS
Thermal Expansion Cracking of Brick
THERMAL EXPANSION of MATERIALS
THERMAL IMAGING, THERMOGRAPHY
THERMAL MASS in BUILDINGS
TREES & SHRUBS, TRIM OFF BUILDING
TRIM, EXTERIOR CHOICES, INSTALLATION
VAPOR BARRIERS & CONDENSATION in buildings
VAPOR BARRIERS, VINYL SIDING
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
VINYL CHLORIDE HEALTH INFO
VINYL Siding or PLASTIC Window ODORS
Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs
WALL CONSTRUCTION BARRIER vs CAVITY
WATER BARRIERS, EXTERIOR BUILDING
WATER ENTRY in buildings
WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS
WIND TURBINES & LIGHTNING
WINDOWS & DOORS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
Photo guide to window hardware, latches, sash controls, & fittings: here we provide photos and description of antique or older window hardware and components as an aid in window part identification and building age.
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In this article series we discuss the selection and installation of windows and doors, following best construction and design practices for building lighting and ventilation, with attention to the impact on building heating and cooling costs, indoor air quality, and comfort of occupants. We review the proper installation details for windows and doors, and we compare the durability of different window and door materials and types. Our page top photograph of a window latch was taken by the author (DF) at the 1840's historic Justin Smith Morrill Homestead in Strafford, Vermont.
See WINDOWS & DOORS our home page for window and door information, and also see WINDOW TYPES - Photo Guide for a photographic guide to window and door types and architectural styles. Ourlinks listed at Related Topics provide in-depth articles on window and door selection, inspection, installation, problem diagnosis, and repair.
For centuries, even before glass was used for glazing, windows were framed with wood set into building walls. Our photo (left) shows an antique wood-framed window in Rugat, Spain (DF).
Earliest wood framed windows were left open (such as this example from Xotolar, Mexico). Later in areas of more hostile climate windows were glazed with animal skins, then parchment, and finally, glass.
For many years, the material choices for "modern" or new residential windows were limited to wood, clad wood, and aluminum. Wood and clad wood remain the leading materials, accounting for almost 50% of the new and replacement window market. Wood use has been declining, however, with the rapid growth of solid vinyl windows.
Solid vinyl windows made inroads into the replacement window market in the mid-1980s; but they were not widely accepted in new homes until the 1990s, when their use skyrocketed. Solid vinyl windows now account for an estimated 30% of the new-home market and 60% of the replacement market.
Aluminum windows account for about 15% of window sales, with the remaining share of the market spread among fiberglass windows and a variety of hybrids and composites that have entered the fray, making window selection today anything but simple.
Window Latches & Locks
Window Operators & Handles: Awning & Casement Windows
Question: What is The Proper Name for "Window Cranks" on Casement & Awning Type Windows?
For "Window Latches, Fasteners, Tracks, Window Weights, and Window Components as Indicators of Building Age" section, I would like to offer a photo of window hardware and to ask for the exact name of it. It is grateful if you can help. - Ed. - Hong Kong
Window Rope Repair / Replacement, Window Ropes, Chains, Pulleys, Tracks, Sliders, Controls & Sash Latches
Window ropes (or chains) combined with window sash weights hidden in a cavity along either side of the window frame, were used to offset the weight of the window sash and to ease window opening and closing.
The window rope is secured to the top (red arrow in our sketch, below left) or occasionally to the bottom of the window sash at each side. The rope (or flat metal chain) runs up the side of the window sash in a groove (our photo at far left), passes over a pulley (green arrow in sketch at below left) at the top of the window frame (photo at close left), and extends down into a cavity to its connection at a (usually cast iron) window weight (blue in our sketch at left).
Repair of a broken window rope is not technically difficult, but it requires careful removal of the interior vertical window trim from one (or both sides) to expose the window sash weight and its cavity.
A new window sash rope is tied to the weight, passed up over the pulley and out into the window frame where it is secured (usually by a knot pushed into a hole at the window sash bottom corner).
If you need to replace the sash rope on the upper window sash you will need to remove in this order:
Window Sash Control Without Window Rope Replacement
A step up in energy efficiency from just replacing a broken window rope is the combination of insulating the window sash weight cavity and installing an air-tight window sash track. This method re-uses the original window sashes. (For the maximum window energy efficiency gain you'd replace the entire window assembly with replacement, insulated glass sashes - an easy but more expensive step.)
Several manufacturers offer a snap-in window track that uses a spring-loaded or even a simple aluminum center "parting strip" between the two sashes. To make this repair the window pulleys are removed and discarded - typically there are screws at the top and bottom of the pulley that permit it to be removed without any disassembly of the window trim.
But to get the replacement window tracks in place you may need to remove window trim to permit removal of the upper and lower window sashes.
The window ropes are removed from both sashes and discarded. The window weights and some of the window rope or chain are left in the cavity on either side of the window - just push the cut end of your chain or rope through the pulley opening and into the cavity where it will lie fallow.
The replacement window track left and right sides are held in place along with the upper and lower sashes as an entire "assembly" that is then set into the window jamb. Tacking a new outer wood strip molding in place holds the entire assembly in place.
The replacement window track kit usually includes foam or instructions to seal with caulk the surface behind the track - between the back side of the track and the window jamb surface. This step will eliminate drafts around your window sashes even though you're re-using the original window sashes.
The down side of this approach is that you have left the old un insulated cavity on either side of the window - an imperfection in the insulation of the building exterior wall. To insulate that cavity, before we set the assembled sashes and new track in place we drill openings that permit filling the old window weight side cavity with spray foam.
Andersen Windows and Doors www.andersenwindows.com Vinyl-clad windows and patio doors, including storm resistant models. Also see Anderson A-Series Casement Windows & Window Parts, web search 01/15/2010, original source: http://www.andersenwindows.com/homeowner/pdfs/A-Series_Casement.pdf
Atrium Companies Inc. www.atriumcompanies.com Vinyl and aluminum windows and patio doors
Certainteed Corp. www.certainteed.com Vinyl windows and patio doors
Crestline Windows and Doors www.crestlinewindows.com Wood, vinyl, and aluminum-clad windows and patio doors
Eagle Windows and Doors www.eaglewindow.com Extruded-aluminum-clad windows and sliders with LVL frames and steel entry doors
Fibertec Windows and Door Manufacturing www.fibertec.com Pultruded fiberglass windows and doors
Hurd Windows and Doors www.hurd.com Wood, vinyl, and aluminum clad windows and patio doors
Jeld-Wen Windows and Doors www.jeld-wen.com Wood, vinyl, aluminum-clad, and aluminum windows and patio doors
Kolbe Windows and Doors www.kolbe-kolbe.com Wood, vinyl, and aluminum-clad windows and patio doors
Marvin Window and Doors www.marvin.com Wood and extruded-aluminum-clad windows and patio doors, including true divided lites and storm-resistant models
Milgard Windows and Doors www.milgard.com Wood, aluminum, vinyl, and fiberglass-clad windows and patio doors
MW Windows www.mwwindows.com Wood, vinyl, and vinyl-clad windows and patio doors
Peachtree Doors and Windows www.peach99.com Vinyl-clad and aluminum-clad windows with optional hardwood interior; aluminum-clad, steel, and fiberglass patio doors with optional hardwood interior
Pella Windows and Doors www.pella.com Wood and aluminum-clad windows and patio doors with optional between-the-glass shades and blinds, including storm-resistant models
Thermotech Windows Ltd. www.thermotechwindows.com Complete line of fiberglass pultruded windows
Weather Shield Windows and Doors www.weathershield.com Wood, vinyl, vinyl-clad, and aluminum-clad windows and patio doors, including historic replacement windows and storm-resistant models
WindsorWindows and Doors www.windsorwindows.com Wood and vinyl windows and patio doors, including a line of wood windows with a cellular-PVC exterior
Andersen Windows and Doors www.andersenwindows.com Skylights and roof windows with exterior sash clad with glass-fiber-reinforced material
Milgard Windows and Doors www.milgard.com Skylights with aluminum frames (thermal break optional) with vinyl subframes on operable models; optional motorized controls with rain sensor
Pella Windows and Doors www.pella.com Wood interior, aluminum exterior, optional motorized controls, and manual or motorized fabric-pleated shades
Roto Frank of America www.roofwindows.com Wood interior, aluminum exterior, optional motorized controls, and manual or motorized fabric-pleated shades; Sweet16 model fits 16 in. o.c. framing
Velux America Inc. www.velux.com Skylights and roof windows with wood interior and aluminum-clad exterior. Options include insect screens, blinds, motorized controls and shades with rain sensor, electrochromatic glass, and flashing kits for metal and tile roofs and mulled units
Skylight Light Tube Manufacturers & Sources
SolaTube www.solatube.com Light tubes from 10 to 21 in. in diameter; options include electrical lighting, daylight dimmer, and integral bath fan
Sun-Tek Skylights www.sun-tek.com Light tubes from 10 to 21 in. in diameter; options include electrical lighting and multitube Spyder skylight
Velux America Inc. www.velux.com Sun Tunnel light tubes from 14 to 22 in. in diameter with flexible or rigid tubes
American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) www.aamanet.org
Efficient Windows Collaborative www.efficientwindows.org
National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) www.nfrc.org Sustainable by Design www.susdesign.com
Shareware calculators for sun angles, solar heat gain, and shading
Window and Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) www.wdma.com
-- Window manufacturer list adapted and paraphrased, edited, and supplemented, with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
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