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Building access ramp slope, pitch or angle specifications & codes: this document provides building code specifications, sketches, photographs, and examples of defects used in inspecting indoor or outdoor building access ramps.
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This article series on access ramp design & construction explains and illustrates the requirements for safe, useable interior and exterior access ramps in buildings.
[Click to enlarge any image]
Readers should note that the design specifications for permitted slope and other specifications for ramps that are not used for building entry or exit, such as curb cuts, are different from those used at building entrances.
For example a steeper slope may be permitted on non-access ramps. For complete details about building access ramp construction: slope, width, railings, non-slip surfaces, steps, landings at ramps, etc. See the standards, code, and ADA REFERENCES at the end of this document.
The combination of a sloped surface with conditions that can make that walking surface slippery, especially at outdoor building access ramps, forms a falling hazard at both ramp ascent, and ramp descent for nearly everyone. These hazards are particularly increased if the ramp pitch is too steep. The desirable ramp slope standard, one inch of rise in 12 inches of run (about 8.3 percent slope), has been adopted by most building codes regardless of whether or not the access ramp is specifically for people with disabilities.
Our illustrations above and below describe the recommended slope range for building access ramps, fixed stairs, and other structures.
If a building access ramp (also called an egress ramp) is located within an accessible route of travel and is used as a means of egress (exiting from a building), the ramp slope should be 1:12 (4.8 degrees, 8.3 percent) or less in the direction of travel.
This standard is reflected in at least four building standards: UBC 1003.3.4.3, BOCA 1016.3, ADA 4.8.2, IBC 1010.2, and is elaborated in an excellent book that we recommend on stairs and ramps, Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, by Bakken et als, found in references at the end of this article.
If the ramp is NOT located within an accessible route of egress (say a ramp giving access between the street and an elevated sidewalk), the slope of the ramp may be a little steeper (1:8 rather than 1:12, or 7.1 degrees, or 12.5 percent) in the direction of travel.
Incidentally, depending on terrain, a ramp may slope upwards towards a building entry/exit door, or it may slope downwards towards the entry door. In either case, the ramp slope rules and standards are the same and the trip/fall hazards are essentially the same.
How to measure the slope of an access ramp
Ramp Slope Example 1: if your ramp is twelve feet long (144 inches) and the rise is twelve inches (12 inches) then the slope of the ramp is 12:144, or simplifying, dividing both sides of the equation by 12, the slope can be written as 1:12 - which meets the desired ADA standard.
Ramp Slope Example 2: If the ramp is twelve feet long (144 inches) and the total rise is four feet (48 inches) then the slope of the ramp is 48:144, or simplifying by dividing both sides of the equation by 12, the slope of this ramp is written as 4:12 (and the ramp is too steep, likely to result in a fall).
Access Ramp Landing slope
Separately from the slope of the access ramp walkway itself, in some situations a landing or platform may be required along a rampway, depending on the ramp length and the requirement for turning space.
Continue reading at RAMP SLIP TRIP FALL HAZARDS or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
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