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PLUMBING SYSTEM INSPECT DIAGNOSE REPAIR
AGE of WATER HEATERS
ALTERNATIVE HOT WATER SOURCES
ELECTRIC SHOWER HEATERS
High Efficiency Water Heaters
Indirect-fired Water Heaters
Instantaneous Water Heaters
Multiple water heaters in parallel
Multiple water heaters in series
Range Boiler Water Heaters
Side Arm Coil Water Heaters
Solar Water Heaters
Tankless Coil for Hot Water
Tankless Water Heaters
AIRBOUND HEAT SYSTEM REPAIR by WATER FEED VALVE
ANODES & DIP TUBES on WATER HEATERS
ANTIFREEZE for BOILERS
ANTI SCALD VALVES
APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY RATINGS
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
CHLORAMINE / CHLORINE Tests
CHLORINE IN DRINKING WATER
CHLORINE in WATER, HOW TO TEST FOR
CHLORINE IN SEPTIC WASTEWATER
CLEANOUTS, PLUMBING DRAIN
CLOGGED DRAIN DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
CLOGGED SUPPLY PIPING
DEBRIS in WATER SUPPLY, Water Heater
DRAIN a WATER HEATER TANK
ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
FLOODED WATER HEATER REPAIR
GAS FIRED WATER HEATERS
GAS PIPING, VALVES, CONTROLS
HOT WATER IMPROVEMENTS
HOT WATER PRESSURE EXPANSION RATE
HOT WATER QUANTITY IMPROVEMENT
HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS
INDIRECT FIRED WATER HEATERS
MANUALS & PARTS GUIDES - HVAC
MIXING / ANTI-SCALD VALVES
NO HEAT - NO HOT WATER: HEATER DIAGNOSIS
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
NOISE CONTROL for HEATING SYSTEMS
NOISE, PLUMBING CHECKLIST
NOISE, WATER HEATER
ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS IN WATER
OIL FIRED WATER HEATERS
MIXING / ANTI-SCALD VALVES
PIPING IN buildings, Clogs Leaks Types
PLUMBING FIXTURES, KITCHEN, BATH
PLUMBING VENT DEFECTS & NOISES
PUMPS, HEAT PUMPS
PUMPS, OIL BURNER
PUMPS, PONY PUMPS
PUMPS, SEPTIC PUMPS
PUMPS, SEWAGE EJECTOR / GRINDER PUMPS
PUMPS, SUMP PUMPS
PUMPS, WATER PUMPS
PUMPS, WATER REPAIR
RELIEF VALVE LEAKS
RELIEF VALVES - TP Valves on Boilers
RELIEF VALVES - STEAM TP VALVES
RELIEF VALVES - Water Heaters
RELIEF VALVES - Water Tanks
SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS
BLOCKBED RADIANT FLOORS - SOLAR DESIGN
FLOOR, CONCRETE SLAB CHOICES
FLOOR, CONCRETE SLAB POURED FINISH
GLASS vs HEAT MIRROR SOLAR GAIN/Loss
GREENHOUSE DESIGN for SOLAR HEATING
GREENHOUSE / SUNSPACE GLARE
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN KEY ELEMENTS
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN METHOD
PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY MONITORING
PASSIVE SOLAR FLOOR TILES, PHASE CHANGE
PASSIVE SOLAR HEAT PERFORMANCE
PASSIVE SOLAR HOME, LOW COST
PASSIVE SOLAR PERFORMANCE PROBE
PASSIVE SOLAR Roof & Window Overhangs
PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS
REMOTE ELECTRIC POWER, PHOTOVOLTAIC
ROCK-BED SOLAR HEAT STORAGE DESIGN
SLAB INSULATION, PASSIVE SOLAR
SLATE THERMAL MASS for SOLAR HEAT STORAGE
SOLAR COLLECTOR AIR or GAS COLLECTION
SOLAR COLLECTOR EFFICIENCY COMPARISONS
SOLAR COLLECTOR FILMS
SOLAR COLLECTOR OUTGASSING
SOLAR COLLECTOR WOOD HOUSINGS
SOLAR GAIN CALCULATION
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM DESIGNS
SOLAR HOT WATER HEATERS
TANKLESS WATER HEATERS
Temperature Pressure Relief Valves - Water Heaters
THERMOSTATS, HEATING / COOLING
THERMOSTATS, WATER HEATER
TIMERS for ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
WATER CONTAMINANT LEVELS
WATER HAMMER NOISE DIAGNOSE & CURE
WATER HEATER ALTERNATIVES
WATER HEATER ANODES, DIP TUBES
WATER HEATER AIR INLET
WATER HEATER DEBRIS FLUSH
WATER HEATER DRAIN PROCEDURE
WATER HEATER EFFICIENCY
WATER HEATER FLUSH PROCEDURE
WATER HEATER NOISES
WATER HEATER PROBLEM DIAGNOSIS
WATER HEATER PROPERTIES
WATER HEATER SCALE - De-Liming Procedure
WATER HEATER SCALE PREVENTION
WATER HEATER SAFETY
WATER HEATERS for HOME HEATING USE?
WATER ODORS, CAUSE CURE
WATER PIPES, Clogs Leaks Types
WATER PRESSURE & FLOW MEASUREMENT
WATER PRESSURE GAUGE ACCURACY
WATER PRESSURE LOSS DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
WATER PRESSURE REDUCER / REGULATOR
WATER PRESSURE PUMP REPAIR GUIDE
WATER PUMPS, TANKS, TESTS, WELLS, REPAIRS
WATER PUMP REPAIR GUIDE
WATER QUALITY TESTS, CONTAMINANTS, TREATMENT
WATER QUANTITY IMPROVEMENT
WATER SOFTENERS & CONDITIONERS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
Solar water heaters: this article explains the basic components of solar hot water heating systems used to heat water for washing and bathing. Solar water heaters use renewable energy - sunlight - collected in outdoor rooftop or ground-mounted solar collectors to heat water which is circulated by a pump between a hot water storage tank and the panels.
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The schematic at above left (U.S. Department of Energy) explains a typical active, closed loop solar water heater hookup and shows the basic parts of a solar hot water system. The schematic at above right (U.S. DOE) explains a typical passive-batch solar water heating system, showing the batch collector containing a volume of hot water and located separately from a backup solar water storage or water heater tank.
Here are the key parts of solar hot water heating systems:
Our solar water heater photographs below show a convection-type solar water heater widely distributed in Mexico. The white water tank and the bank of solar heating tubes are initially filled with cold water.
As the sun heats water in the parallel heater tubes, warmed water rises by convection in the tubes and enters the storage tank while cooler water from the tank falls into the tubes for further heating. Heated water is drawn from a fitting at tank top while incoming cool water is fed into the tank bottom.
This system heats water and stores it in the reservoir tank using only natural convection with no pump required. Our second photo (below right) shows one of these systems installed.
As energy costs continue to increase the payback-time for the cost of solar panels and piping installation for solar hot water systems will continue to improve. The solar water heater system sketch is courtesy of Accu-Spect.
Especially in areas that receive adequate sunlight we should expect to see an increase in popularity of these systems.
This article series describes the characteristics of these water heating methods:
Green link shows where you are in this article series.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question: which is most efficient backup system for solar hot water?
The solar system I am pricing has one backup heating element, in the middle of the tank. I expect a lot of my use will be at night, therefore I was an efficient electrical system too. Would the performance of a supply tank with an element on the top and on the bottom, at traditional tank, be more efficient and supply more hot water than the single element, middle mounted heating element? - firstname.lastname@example.org
Interesting question Dan. I don't know - insofar as being able to cite an authoritative source without more research. But it may help to understand the role of dual heating elements in electric water heaters. The lower element warms all water in the tank, starting with cold water entering (cold water usually is directed to the tank bottom by a dip tube). The upper element boosts the ending temperature of hot water leaving the tank.
Question: Thermal slab with pipes deep in the concrete?
Current building regs here in Scotland dictate that I fit a thermal slab of at least 125mm thick as a floor in my house extension. I couldn't see the point of just relying on the sun through the window to heat it so I fitted under floor heating pipes.The slab is 250 mm thick,the pipes are 200mm below the surface,there is 170mm of "kingspan " between the membrane/subsoil and the edges are insulated with 5mm Kingspan.
Lee, my experience is that pipes deep in the slab don't work well - which is reflected in the documents by experts in the radiant heating indusry. There are two heat transmission issues:
For technical details about placing heating tubing of any sort in to concrete slabs, see these articles:
Passive solar heated slabs: SLAB INSULATION, PASSIVE SOLAR
Radiant heat flooring design:
The R value is 5.100 M2.k/w.Yes the edges have 50mm of the same spec kingspan.The floor slab is encosed in the foundation wall and above ground level. Nothing much lost if it doesn't work,just the £70 for the barrier pipe.I will just have to fit a conventional radiator to the wall and connect the panel to the hot water tank if the heat goes down into the subsoil. Do you think that heat would rise through a solid ,as it does through a gas or liquid?
Questions & answers or comments about solar water heater systems: choices, properties, installation, maintenance & repair.
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Technical Reviewers & References
Related Topics, found near the top of this page suggest articles closely related to this one.