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This article explains the best practices used to install vinyl tile, sheet vinyl, cork floors, and other resilient flooring including modern linoleum.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
This article series discusses and provides a best construction practices guide to the selection and installation of building interior surface materials, carpeting, doors, drywall, trim, flooring, lighting, plaster, materials, finishes, and sound control materials.
Also see INTERIORS of buildings, our home page for information about all topics relating to building interiors.
Multi layer sheet vinyl is by far the most common material
used in resilient floors.
It comes in a variety of grades and
a vast array of colors and patterns and, if installed well and
maintained properly, should last 10 to 20 years.
tiles are another popular option; but, with multiple seams,
they are more vulnerable to intrusions from water and dirt.
Natural alternatives to vinyl that are growing in popularity
include cork, in sheet or tile form, and old-fashioned
linoleum, which is making a comeback in residential
installations with new colors and marbleized patterns.
Sheet Vinyl Floor Properties & Installation Guide
Sheet vinyl is manufactured to be either fully adhered to
the substrate with mastic or bonded only at the edges,
called a perimeter-bond system.
Flex-type vinyl flooring,
made for perimeter-bond installation, tolerates minor unevenness
and movement in the substrate better than fully
adhered systems, but fully adhered systems are more
durable overall and less likely to be damaged from stresses
like a heavy piece of furniture being dragged across.
All modern sheet vinyl flooring has three layers:
Backing layer. Typically, this is felt or vinyl. Better
grades generally have vinyl backing that resists
denting better than felt. To improve the tear resistance
and toughness of layered flooring, some manufacturers
laminate an additional layer between the core layer
and the backing.
Core layer. This is a foam interlayer that gives the material
its resilience and resistance to denting.
and pattern are either printed on this layer or “inlaid.”
With inlaid construction, the color and pattern run
through the material from the wear layer to backing,
making it less prone to show a small nick in the surface.
Wear layer. The top layer protects the flooring from
wear and is generally either clear vinyl or a more
durable urethane (PUR) finish, sometimes enhanced
with aluminum oxide or other additives to increase
Many finishes are marketed as “nowax,”
but these are not maintenance-free and require
periodic application of an acrylic dressing. Lower gloss
finishes are recommended for high-traffic areas.
Better quality vinyl floors tend to be thicker overall
and have a thicker and higher-quality wear layer. As the
wear layer gets abraded from dirt and grime, it becomes
duller and harder to clean. T
he thickness of the wear layer
can range from 5 to 25 mils, and the flooring thickness
from about 1/16-inch to 1/8-inch. Better quality products offer
better resistance to stains and scratches than lower-end
floors, and some of the top quality floors are guaranteed
not to rip or permanently dent.
How to Select & Install Solid Vinyl Floor Tiles: Solid Vinyl, VAT, VCT
Vinyl Flooring Products 1900 - 1986 May Contain Asbestos
Similar to inlaid sheet vinyl, the color and pattern in solid
vinyl tiles run through the full thickness of the tile, making
them very durable. Because the color and pattern
extend through the tile, they do not wear away with heavy
use, but choices are limited.
Our photo (left) shows cork-pattern solid vinyl floor tiles from the 1960's. Typically vinyl floor tiles, or VAT (vinyl-asbestos tile) from this era contain asbestos, and special procedures are required if the floor is to be demolished.
Modern solid vinyl tiles are cut from
a solid block of material and come with a low-gloss finish.
One type, vinyl composition tile or VCT, is essentially the
same product as solid vinyl, but with other binders and
fillers. Both types require waxing and buffing, both to seal
any gaps between tiles and to create an easy-to-clean
Contemporary resilient flooring products such as the vinyl floor tile shown at left do not contain asbestos however.
At left is a photo of Armstrong Excelon Vinyl Floor tile, acontemporary, popular resilient floor covering, sold in 70 colors at retail outlets including Home Depot stores, this modern resilient floor tile does not contain asbestos. [Click any image to see an enlarged, detailed version]
Below our photo shows a color chart for contemporary Armstrong vinyl floor tiles.
Vinyl Floor Tile Installation Procedure
Vinyl flooring can be installed over approved wood-based
underlayments, dry concrete, or existing vinyl or linoleum
if it is in good condition, clean, and free of wax or grease.
However, any imperfection in the underlayment will
telegraph through the finished floor, so if there are any
questions, it is best to install new underlayment.
problems with vinyl are caused by problems with the underlayment,
such as nail pops and swelling or delamination
due to moisture. Adhesive failures at edges or seams
can also be a problem.
To avoid these types of problems, use only underlayments
and adhesives that are recommended by the flooring
Also, if possible, avoid seams—most
sheet vinyl comes in 6- and 12-foot rolls, so many rooms
can be done without a seam. If seams are required, darker
colors and textured pattern are preferable and help hide
dirt and scuff marks as well.
All seams should be sealed
with an approved sealer to keep dirt out and to keep
water from penetrating and undermining the adhesive
Guide to Installing Vinyl Floor Tiles over Concrete
If installing over a concrete slab, make sure it
has a proper vapor barrier and has cured for at least
60 days. A concrete sealer is recommended. Existing slabs
should be wire brushed, swept clean, and primed with an
approved primer before gluing down resilient flooring.
Acclimatization Requirements for Vinyl Tile Floors
Because vinyl shrinks and expands
with room temperature, it should be allowed to adjust to
the room temperature before installation. In general, the
room should be heated or cooled to its normal temperature
and the vinyl allowed to acclimate for 24 hours.
Underlayments for Vinyl Floor Tile Systems
For a problem-free floor, sheet vinyl
must be installed over a smooth, hard, and dry surface
approved for use with vinyl.
Plywood underlayment for floor tiles: The most reliable underlayment, accepted by
all vinyl flooring manufacturers, is sanded plywood
with solid inner plies (no voids) that resist denting or
This is usually either designated “Underlayment
with sanded face” or “C-C Plugged with
sanded face.” (Other possible grades include “Plugged
crossbands under face” or “Plugged inner plies”).
Avoid plywood with plastic or resin fillers on the
surface, as these may stain the vinyl.
Lauan underlayment for floor tiles. Type 1 exterior-grade lauan plywood is sometimes
used as an underlayment and is approved by
some vinyl flooring manufacturers.
If using lauan, use
the best grade available, which is often labeled B-B.
Particleboard underlayment for floor tiles. This is discouraged by most manufacturers
but is sometimes used in areas with limited
exposure to moisture, since particleboard has the
potential to swell at edges if wet.
Also, the particleboard
surface can tear when installers pull back the
vinyl to spread adhesive at seams.
Make sure the subflooring is dry before installing the
Use minimum1/4-inch-thick panels so that
the underlayment plus subfloor is at least 1 inch thick.
Stagger joints in the underlayment so they are offset
from joints in the floor sheathing by at least 2 inches (see Figure 5-16).
Most flooring manufacturers specify a 3 1/2-inch gap
between sheets, filled with a quick-setting latex-based
cementitious filler. The filler restrains the edges of the
underlayment and helps prevent ridging from movement
or the absorption of flooring adhesive at panel edges.
The nailing schedule for resilient flooring underlayment is shown in Table 5-7 .
[Click to enlarge any table or image]
should approximately equal the thickness of the underlayment
and subfloor and should not be driven into the framing.
Many contractors prefer staples to nails, because they
do not leave dimples in the underlayment. Before using
staples, however, make sure that they are approved by the
Nails should be ring-shank
or spiral-shank and driven flush or just below the surface,
but the heads should not be filled.
Other holes, gaps, and
voids should be filled with a latex-based cementitious filling
compound before laying the floor.
Natural Alternatives to Vinyl Floors: Cork Floors
Homeowners who want a resilient floor covering but are
looking for an alternative to vinyl should consider the new
cork products as well as traditional linoleum, which is
enjoying a comeback in residential applications.
Cork has a number of desirable attributes for a flooring
material: its air-filled, watertight cells are strong, soft to
walk on, and insulating, making it a good choice over a
To make it into flooring, manufacturers
grind up the cork, mix it with a chemical binder, bake the
material, and slice it into sheets. Cork flooring products
range in thickness from 3/16 to 7/16-
inch for some laminated
Most cork flooring is sold as tiles and installed with
adhesive, similarly to other resilient tiles. Tiles are available
either unfinished or prefinished with carnauba wax or
a more durable polyurethane or acrylic coating
. Tiles tend
to have natural color variation and can be purchased in
light, medium, or dark tones.
Guide to Modern Linoleum Floors
For the last 50 years or so, linoleum has
been used almost exclusively in commercial settings, but
it is making a comeback in residential settings, due largely
to its use of all-natural ingredients and reputation for durability.
Our photo (left) shows antique sheet flooring found in a home built in th3 1800's.
Linoleum is made by boiling oil to form a thick
cement paste that is mixed with pine rosin, wood flour,
and other fillers such as clay or limestone to make a
durable, resilient sheet flooring that wears well and resists
The backing is typically jute fabric, a natural
fiber. Other than relatively minor initial off-gassing from
the linseed oil base, linoleum is considered nontoxic by
most healthy-house advocates.
It is also naturally antimicrobial
and anti static, making it well suited for hospitals,
schools, and rooms with electronic equipment. If well
maintained, a linoleum floor can provide a 20- to 30-year
In response to new demand for the product in recent
years, manufacturers have responded with a wide variety
of solid and marbleized colors and attractive checkered
patterns, available in sheet form as well as 19x19-inch
tiles that can be mixed to create borders and other designs.
Unlike vinyl, linoleum colors go all the way through the
product, making scratches and wear spots less noticeable
than on vinyl. Also, scratches, cigarette burns, and other
surface wear can be removed with steel wool or a nylon
abrasive pad and buffed out.
However, since linoleum does not have a separate
wear layer like vinyl flooring and is slightly porous, it requires
somewhat more maintenance than vinyl. Applying
a sealer or polish to the new floor will help it resist stains
and make it easier to clean.
Also, portions of a linoleum
floor not exposed to light will tend to darken or yellow due
to the natural oxidation of the linseed oil base. This coloration
will disappear upon exposure to light, and the original
linoleum color will be restored, or “bloom.”
All linoleum flooring is now manufactured in Europe.
The largest supplier in the United States is European-based
Forbo Linoleum, Inc., but U.S.-based flooring companies
such as Armstrong are beginning to offer linoleum products
as well. A unique floating linoleum plank floor that
can be installed with or without glue is available from
Nova Distinctive Floors.
How Should I Handle Exposed Sheet Flooring Underside I can See in My Duct System?
I have these pictures of the flooring surrounding the floor air vent in the bathroom of my house. Both are taken from inside the vent looking up. The white overhang is the bottom of the relatively new sheet flooring which is placed over the 1978 bathroom floor which is most likely some sort of sheet vinyl/linoleum . It's a typical bathroom floor.
Between the wood floorboard and the white overhang (new floor), you can see a brown looking material. I'm not sure if this is backing of the original floor, backing of the new floor, or something else entirely.
Without speculating too much, was the asbestos paper backing used on old flooring typically white in color? I'd like to rid the idea that the brown part you see (although blurry) is an asbestos backing. if realistic. I understand testing is the only way but im not about to rip it out.
Thanks for your time and I enjoy your website. it's very informative. I refer many people to it. - J.L.
Reply: Yes old sheet flooring asbestos backing is typically white, but it could be a different color by now - here's what we'd do:
I am sorry to say that the photos were too blurry for me to have much of an opinion - I know how tough it is to get the camera to focus in those odd awkward places.
That said, here are some things to consider:
In my (limited) experience with asbestos-containing backing on sheet flooring, yes it's usually quite light or white in color.
But of course if it was exposed to dirt, dust, debris, spills, its color may be changed from original.
If you think the flooring you see was installed before 1986 it's reasonable to presume it contains asbestos and to treat it accordingly - meaning don't make a mess.
It sounds as if it's all covered with other layers so it surely isn't much of a fiber release hazard in your home in general.
But I agree that if asbestos-suspect material is exposed in the air path of your HVAC system ductwork, it would be prudent to see if you could cover or encapsulate it - probably you'd use a spray on coating if you can't reach the exposed surface to laminate something over it.
That'd be much less disturbance than tearing up floors unnecessarily. - DF
Continue reading at CORK FLOORING or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Steve Bliss's Building Advisor at buildingadvisor.com helps homeowners & contractors plan & complete successful building & remodeling projects: buying land, site work, building design, cost estimating, materials & components, & project management through complete construction. Email: email@example.com
Steven Bliss served as editorial director and co-publisher of The Journal of Light Construction for 16 years and previously as building technology editor for Progressive Builder and Solar Age magazines. He worked in the building trades as a carpenter and design/build contractor for more than ten years and holds a masters degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Excerpts from his recent book, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, Wiley (November 18, 2005) ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, appear throughout this website, with permission and courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Best Practices Guide is available from the publisher, J. Wiley & Sons, and also at Amazon.com
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standards, March-April 1993
"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards, January-February 1991
Access Ramp building codes:
Access Ramp Standards:
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources for good design of stairs and ramps etc. even where disabled individuals are not the design target.
ANSI A117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporated into the ADA)
ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standards)
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).
Asbestos Identification and Testing References
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
ASHRAE resource on dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries. The following three ASHRAE Handbooks are also available at the InspectAPedia bookstore in the third page of our Insulate-Ventilate section:
2005 ASHRAE Handbook : Fundamentals: Inch-Pound Edition (2005 ASHRAE HANDBOOK : Fundamentals : I-P Edition) (Hardcover), Thomas H. Kuehn (Contributor), R. J. Couvillion (Contributor), John W. Coleman (Contributor), Narasipur Suryanarayana (Contributor), Zahid Ayub (Contributor), Robert Parsons (Author), ISBN-10: 1931862702 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862707
2004 ASHRAE Handbook : Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Systems and Equipment : Inch-Pound Edition (2004 ASHRAE Handbook : HVAC Systems and Equipment : I-P Edition) (Hardcover)
by American Society of Heating, ISBN-10: 1931862478 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862479
"2004 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment The 2004 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Systems and Equipment discusses various common systems and the equipment (components or assemblies) that comprise them, and describes features and differences. This information helps system designers and operators in selecting and using equipment. Major sections include Air-Conditioning and Heating Systems (chapters on system analysis and selection, air distribution, in-room terminal systems, centralized and decentralized systems, heat pumps, panel heating and cooling, cogeneration and engine-driven systems, heat recovery, steam and hydronic systems, district systems, small forced-air systems, infrared radiant heating, and water heating); Air-Handling Equipment (chapters on duct construction, air distribution, fans, coils, evaporative air-coolers, humidifiers, mechanical and desiccant dehumidification, air cleaners, industrial gas cleaning and air pollution control); Heating Equipment (chapters on automatic fuel-burning equipment, boilers, furnaces, in-space heaters, chimneys and flue vent systems, unit heaters, makeup air units, radiators, and solar equipment); General Components (chapters on compressors, condensers, cooling towers, liquid coolers, liquid-chilling systems, centrifugal pumps, motors and drives, pipes and fittings, valves, heat exchangers, and energy recovery equipment); and Unitary Equipment (chapters on air conditioners and heat pumps, room air conditioners and packaged terminal equipment, and a new chapter on mechanical dehumidifiers and heat pipes)."
1996 Ashrae Handbook Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment: Inch-Pound Edition (Hardcover), ISBN-10: 1883413346 or ISBN-13: 978-1883413347 ,
"The 1996 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook is the result of ASHRAE's continuing effort to update, expand and reorganize the Handbook Series. Over a third of the book has been revised and augmented with new chapters on hydronic heating and cooling systems design; fans; unit ventilator; unit heaters; and makeup air units. Extensive changes have been added to chapters on panel heating and cooling; cogeneration systems and engine and turbine drives; applied heat pump and heat recovery systems; humidifiers; desiccant dehumidification and pressure drying equipment, air-heating coils; chimney, gas vent, fireplace systems; cooling towers; centrifugal pumps; and air-to-air energy recovery. Separate I-P and SI editions."
Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Historical use of brick in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the Kent Tavern in Calais, VT.
"Brick nogging is a European method of construction which was brought to the new world in the early-nineteenth century. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review.
Building Research Council, BRC, nee Small Homes Council, SHC, School of Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, brc.arch.uiuc.edu. "The Small Homes Council (our original name) was organized in 1944 during the war at the request of the President of the University of Illinois to consider the role of the university in meeting the demand for housing in the United States. Soldiers would be coming home after the war and would be needing good low-cost housing. ... In 1993, the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the School of Architecture-Building Research Council. ... The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that would affect the quality of the nation's housing stock.
How could homes be designed and built more efficiently?
What kinds of construction and production techniques worked well and which did not?
How did people use different kinds of spaces in their homes?
What roles did community planning, zoning, and interior design play in how neighborhoods worked
Energy Savers: Whole House Systems Approach to Energy Efficient Home Design [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] - U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Supply Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Supply_Vent.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11880?print
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Exhaust Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Exhaust.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11870
"Energy Savers: Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Energy_Recovery_Venting.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11900
"Energy Savers: Detecting Air Leaks [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Air_Sealing_1.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438 "Falls in the home and public places are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, but are overlooked in most literature. This book is unique in that it is entirely devoted to falls. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insurance adjusters, architects, writers of building codes, attorneys, or anyone who cares for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when people will likely fall, what most likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. "
Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Gypsum Construction Guide, National Gypsum Corporation
Construction Handbook [purchase at Amazon.com] H17, Technical
Folder SA920 and PM2, PM3 and PM4, United States Gypsum Company, 125 South Franklin ST., PO Box 806278, Chicago, IL 60680-4124,
Humidity: What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem?
Ice Dam Leaks in building attics and roof cavities, how to inspect for evidence of leaks, identify causes, and correct bad attic ventilation, improper roof venting, and these causes of attic mold or roof structure damage
"Insulation: Adding Insulation to an Existing Home [copy on file as /interiors/Insulation_Adding_DOE.pdf ] - ," U.S. Department of Energy - tips on how to do your own check for the presence of absence of insulation in a home
Insulation: Selecting Insulation for New Home Construction [copy on file as /interiors/New_Home_Insulation_DOE.pdf ] - , U.S. Department of Energy -
"Your state and local building codes probably include minimum insulation requirements, but to build an energy-efficient home, you may need or want to exceed them. For maximum energy efficiency, you should also consider the interaction between the insulation and other building components. This is called the
"whole-house systems design approach" [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] -
Insulation Types [copy on file as /interiors/Insulation_Types_DOE.pdf ] - , table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE. Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail.
Lath & Plaster Systems [copy on file as /interiors/LathPlaster_Nat_Gypsum.pdf ] - , 092300/NGC, National Gypsum Lath and Plaster Systems, National Gypsum Corporation, 800-628-4662 describing National Gypsum's Kal-Kore brand plaster base
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Metal Lath Specifications, Specification for metal lath and accessories, Lath and Plaster [copy on file as/interiors/Amico_lath-inside.pdf ] - from Amico, a lath and plaster accessory producer.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov
"A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. - PDF Document from NIS
Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Information about the U.S. company can be found at http://www.pergo.com where we obtained historical data used in our discussion of the age of flooring materials in buildings.
Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of
piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall construction with long top girts, diagonal timber bracing, and small diameter logs
placed vertically along with concrete chinking to fill in the wall plane.
Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-construction/ and where plank houses were built by native Americans, see
Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228,
Photographer: Mike Meuser
06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank Houses are being sold to raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.
Plastering, PM 5, Product & Systems Technology, US Gypsum, May 1998, web search 10.5.2010, original source: http://www.usg.com/rc/technical-articles/plaster/
[copy on file as/interiors/Plastering_USG.pdf ] -
United States Gypsum Company, 125 South Franklin ST., PO Box 806278, Chicago, IL 60680-4124,
Paraphrasing from this document: USG uses the term shadowing in this document in describing the visual effect over gypsum board joints caused by the lower moisture absorption rate (take-up) and lower capacity than gypsum base face paper. Shadowing at joints occurs where veneer plaster is applied over tape joints, requiring a second coat to completely hide the tape, providing a visually uniform surface. USG Advises: "This [second] cover coat must be allowed to harden and dry before plaster application is started.
Plastering Skills, F. Van Den Branden, Thomas L. Hartsell, Amer Technical Pub (July 1, 1985), ISBN-10: 0826906575, ISBN-13: 978-0826906571 [purchase at Amazon.com]
Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe, Arizona - see rebath.com
Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or
ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2,
available from the publisher, Lawyers ^ Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com firstname.lastname@example.org and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC%20SCREEN.pdf ] -
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Manufactured & Modular Homes: Modular Building Systems Association, MBSA, modularhousing.com, is a trade association promoting and providing links to contact modular builders in North America. Also see the Manufactured Home Owners Association, MHOAA, at www.mhoaa.us. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of America is a National Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in the United States.
Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building flood and how to prevent mold growth in buildings by selection of building materials and by anti-mold construction details.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, available from the publisher, Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com email@example.com and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones