Our page top photo shows a very simple roof installation detail in area where high winds are not much of a concern, San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. Notice that except at the vertical wall abutment these soft clay tiles are simply placed by gravity with no fasteners whatsoever. This roof would be both destroyed and dangerous in high wind or seismic area.
At left (and discussed below) is are details about hurricane clip fasteners used with clay tile roofs in areas of extra risk.
In areas prone to high winds, such as Florida, setting the
tiles in mortar was once considered the strongest system.
However, newer anchoring systems using wires, special
clips, and, in some cases, specialized adhesives have proven
more reliable and have replaced mortar-set systems as the
Wire and clip systems also perform
better than rigid attachment systems in seismic zones, as the
flexible systems tend to absorb the shockwaves of an earthquake
and protect the tiles from cracking.
Building codes vary in their requirements for high-wind and
seismic areas but most permit one or more of the anchoring
systems described below.
Model specifications for
high-wind installations are available in the Concrete and
Clay Roof Tile Installation Manual, jointly published by
the Florida Roofing, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning
Contractors Association and the Tile Roofing Institute.
General guidelines for high-wind installations or roofs
over 40 feet above grade include:
Fasten the head of every roof tile.
Fasten the nose of every roof tile with clips or other
Secure all roof rake tiles with two fasteners.
Set the noses of all roof ridge, roof hip, and roof rake tiles in a bead
of approved roofer’s mastic.
Twisted Wire Requirements for Tile Roof Installations
This approach is used on roofs ranging
from 2:12 to 24:12 in seismic zones and areas with moderate
winds. Rather than nail the tiles to the roof, each tile is
wired to a length of twisted 12-gauge wire (galvanized,
copper, or stainless steel) running from eaves to ridge
under each vertical course of tiles.
[Click to enlarge any image]
The twisted wire has a
loop to tie into every 6 inches and is attached every 10 feet
with special anchors, making relatively few holes in the
underlayment (see Figure 2-22).
Because wire systems allow some movement, seismic
forces do not tend to break the tiles.
Also, damaged tiles
are easy to replace by snipping the tie wire and wiring in a
new tile. Installation is labor-intensive, however, compared
Hurricane Clip Requirements for Tile Roof Installations
A hurricane clip, also known as a
storm clip or side clip, is a concealed L-shaped metal strap
designed to lock down the water-channel side of a roofing
tile near the nose (Figure 2-23).
Hurricane clips for roofing materials are well-suited to concrete tile and are used in
conjunction with nails, screws, or other systems that secure
the head of the tile.
Watch out: Hurricane clips for clay roofing tiles are approved for use in some
hurricane areas, but they should be combined with a nose
clip or similar device for maximum protection. Used alone,
they may deform or loosen after several storms.
Nose Clips or Nose Hooks: Requirements for Tile Roof Installations
Also known as nose hooks, butt hooks, or
wind locks, these simple metal clips hold down the bottom
(nose) end of a roofing tile to prevent strong winds from
lifting and breaking the tiles (Figure 2-24).
Nose clips are nailed in place through the underlying
tile or attached to the tie wires in wire systems.
Nose hooks or nose clips on clay tile roofs are
compatible with all methods of tile attachment and are recommended
for high-wind areas and slopes greater than
The main drawback to nose clips is that they are visible
at the nose of each tile, which some homeowners find
Tile Nail Option for Tile Roof Installations in Seismic or High Wind Areas
This innovative fastener, used mostly with
S-tile or two-piece Mission tile, functions as both a nail
and a nose clip. Because the nail is driven about 6 inches
above the tile, there is no risk of breakage and the nail hole
can be easily sealed with mastic (Figure 2-25).
Tile nails are approved for all slopes and are especially
useful in high-wind areas and on very steep pitches
such as mansards.
Hurricane or seismic tile nails are also useful for securing the
first course of two-piece Mission tile.
the Tyle Tye® tile nail from Newport Tool & Fastener Co.
and the Hook Nail from Wire Works, Inc.
Using Tile Adhesives for Clay or Concrete Tile Roof Installations
Another way to prevent uplift in windy
conditions and to keep tiles from rattling on steep slopes is
to set the butt edge of each tile in a dab of roofing cement.
Over time, however, roofing cement may become brittle
and fail. New proprietary tile adhesives promise to last
longer and stay flexible over time.
areas, some contractors are applying adhesive to every
tile—in some cases combined with other fastening methods,
such as twisted wires.
While long-term performance
has not been well-established, testing by manufacturers
has demonstrated that adhesives can outperform mortar
systems in hurricane-force winds.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
where are clay or concrete root tile clips required?
(Apr 30, 2015) Adam said:
Does each and every tile receive the clips or just the bottom course?
Adam in storm or high wind areas every course and tile should be tied down. In other areas that may not be required. For example in central Mexico where we are away from high winds and hurricanes clay roof tiles are simply held in place by gravity.
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Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide, Edmund C. Snodgrass, Lucie L. Snodgrass, Timber Press, Incorporated, 2006, ISBN-10: 0881927872, ISBN-13: 978-0881927870. The text covers moisture needs, heat tolerance, hardiness, bloom color, foliage characteristics, and height of 350 species and cultivars.
Green Roof Construction and Maintenance, Kelley Luckett, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2009, ISBN-10: 007160880X, ISBN-13: 978-0071608800, quoting: Key questions to ask at each stage of the green building process Tested tips and techniques for successful structural design
Construction methods for new and existing buildings
Information on insulation, drainage, detailing, irrigation, and plant selection
Details on optimal soil formulation
Illustrations featuring various stages of construction
Best practices for green roof maintenance
A survey of environmental benefits, including evapo-transpiration, storm-water management, habitat restoration, and improvement of air quality
Tips on the LEED design and certification process
Considerations for assessing return on investment
Color photographs of successfully installed green roofs
Useful checklists, tables, and charts
Roofing The Right Way, Steven Bolt, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd Ed (1996), ISBN-10: 0070066507, ISBN-13: 978-0070066502
Slate Roofs, National Slate Association, 1926, reprinted 1977
by Vermont Structural Slate Co., Inc., Fair Haven, VT 05743, 802-265-4933/34. (We recommend this book if you can find it. It
has gone in and out of print on occasion.)
Roof Tiling & Slating, a Practical Guide, Kevin Taylor, Crowood Press (2008), ISBN 978-1847970237, If you have never fixed a roof tile or slate before but have wondered how to go about repairing or replacing them, then this is the book for you. Many of the technical books about roof tiling and slating are rather vague and conveniently ignore some of the trickier problems and how they can be resolved. In Roof Tiling and Slating, the author rejects this cautious approach. Kevin Taylor uses both his extensive knowledge of the trade and his ability to explain the subject in easily understandable terms, to demonstrate how to carry out the work safely to a high standard, using tried and tested methods.
This clay roof tile guide considers the various types of tiles, slates, and roofing materials on the market as well as their uses, how to estimate the required quantities, and where to buy them. It also discusses how to check and assess a roof and how to identify and rectify problems; describes how to efficiently "set out" roofs from small, simple jobs to larger and more complicated projects, thus making the work quicker, simpler, and neater; examines the correct and the incorrect ways of installing background materials such as underlay, battens, and valley liners; explains how to install interlocking tiles, plain tiles, and artificial and natural slates; covers both modern and traditional methods and skills, including cutting materials by hand without the assistance of power tools; and provides invaluable guidance on repairs and maintenance issues, and highlights common mistakes and how they can be avoided.
The author, Kevin Taylor, works for the National Federation of Roofing Contractors as a technical manager presenting technical advice and providing education and training for young roofers.
The Slate Roof Bible, Joseph Jenkins, www.jenkinsslate.com,
143 Forest Lane, PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127 - 866-641-7141 (We recommend this book).
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