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AIR TEST FOR MOLD: ACCURACY
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ALLERGENS in BUILDINGS, RECOGNIZING
ANIMAL ALLERGENS / PET DANDER
ANIMAL or URINE ODOR SOURCE DETECTION
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN buildings
BEST CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES GUIDE
BLOWER DOORS & AIR INFILTRATION
BOOKSTORE - INTERIORS
BUILDING NOISE DIAGNOSIS & CURE
BUILDING SAFETY HAZARDS GUIDE
CAR MOLD CONTAMINATION
CARPETING, SELECTION & INSTALLATION
CEILINGS, DROP or SUSPENDED PANEL
CEILINGS & WALLS, PLASTER TYPES
CEILING TILES ASBESTOS CONTENT
CHINESE DRYWALL HAZARDS
COMBUSTION AIR for TIGHT buildings
CONDENSATION or SWEATING PIPES, TANKS
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DEW POINT CALCULATION for WALLS
DRYWALL HAZARDS, CHINESE
DRYWALL INSTALLATION Best Practices
DRYWALL MOLD TESTING
EFFLORESCENCE SALTS & WHITE DEPOSITS
ELDERLY & VETERANS HOME SAFETY
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOODS in BUILDINGS, MOLD PREVENTION
FLOOR DAMAGE DIAGNOSIS
FUNGICIDAL SPRAY & SEALANT USE GUIDE
GAS EXPOSURE EFFECTS, TOXIC
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HEAT LOSS in BUILDINGS
HEAT LOSS DETECTION TOOLS
HEAT LOSS INDICATORS
HEAT LOSS PREVENTION PRIORITIES
HEATING COST SAVINGS METHODS
HOUSE DOCTOR, how-to be
HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS
HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET
INDOOR AIR QUALITY & HOUSE TIGHTNESS
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT GUIDE
INDOOR HOUSE DUST & DEBRIS
METAL LATH, PLASTER & STUCCO
MOBILE HOME INSPECTIONS
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
MOLD: A COMPLETE GUIDE TO MOLD
MVOCs & MOLDY MUSTY ODORS
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE
OZONE MOLD / ODOR TREATMENT WARNINGS
PAINTS & COATINGS ODORS IN BUILDINGS
PARTICLE SIZES & IAQ
Particulates & Allergens Indoors
PESTICIDE EXPOSURE HAZARDS
PET ALLERGENS / PET DANDER
PET STAINS & MARKS in BUILDINGS
PET STAINS on WALLS
PLASTIC ODORS-SCREENS, SIDING
PVC - VINYL BUILDING PRODUCTS
SAFETY HAZARDS GUIDE
SMELL PATCH TEST to Track Down Odors
SOUND CONTROL in buildings
STAINS on & in BUILDINGS, CAUSES & CURES
STAINS on CONCRETE
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS
STAINS & FINISHES, INTERIOR
SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS
THERMAL IMAGING, THERMOGRAPHY
THERMAL IMAGING MOLD SCANS
THERMAL TRACKING & THERMAL BRIDGING
VAPOR BARRIERS & CONDENSATION in BUILDINGS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
VINYL CHLORIDE HEALTH INFO
VINYL SIDING or WINDOW PLASTIC ODORS
VOCs VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
WALL FINISHES INTERIOR
WATER ENTRY in buildings
WOOD FLOOR DAMAGE
This article explains possible effects of carpeting on indoor air quality in homes, including the emission of VOCs, formaldehyde styrene, and odors from other sources such as carpet mold. This article includes excerpts or adaptations from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, by Steven Bliss, courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Also see ASBESTOS in CARPETING, PADDING.
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As discussed in Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction:
Concerns about the health effects of carpeting first gained national attention in 1988 when new carpeting installed at the EPA headquarters in Washington, D.C., was linked to a rash of health complaints among EPA staff. While a definitive cause never was identified, experts focused on two main compounds:
Styrene, a known health hazard and suspected carcinogen, is also found in the latex backing on carpeting.
Since 1988, over 500 people have made complaints to the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) about new carpeting.
The most frequently reported symptoms have been watery eyes, runny nose, burning sensation in the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, rashes, and fatigue. In response, the CPSC commissioned a study of off- gassing from new carpeting and identified 31 compounds, but none approached airborne levels known to be hazardous for short-term exposure.
Long-term effects of exposure to these carpet-associated chemicals or gases were not studied.
While some suspected formaldehyde (see FORMALDEHYDE HAZARDS), a common respiratory irritant, it has not been used in the manufacture of U.S. carpeting since the late 1980s (with the exception of some vinyl-backed carpet tiles used in commercial installations).
Carpet Labeling Program Identifies VOCs, styrene, 4-PC & Formaldehyde
The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI), an industry association representing carpeting manufacturers, also took action by launching its “Green Tag” program in 1992.
The voluntary program tests new carpeting for four categories of emissions: total VOCs, styrene, 4-PC, and formaldehyde.
Since national standards do not exist for carpet emissions, the industry established its own acceptable levels.
While these might not be as stringent as some health advocates would like, they have led to a lowering of emissions by manufacturers eager to display the Green Tag label.
Labeling Program for Carpet Padding & Carpet Adhesives
Since 1992, the CRI program has expanded to include carpet pads and adhesives, suspected by some to be a greater source of volatile compounds than the carpeting itself.
Also, while no chemical stands out as the source of most complaints, the synergistic effect of multiple compounds is not well understood.
Also, the sensitivity to chemical emissions varies among individuals, making the effects of new carpeting on individual occupants difficult to predict.
Air Out Carpet Before Installation or Occupancy
Both CRI and independent health advocates agree that new carpet emissions drop off rapidly in the first 24 to 72 hours after being unrolled and exposed to ventilation air.
By increasing ventilation during that time, or if possible, airing out the carpet for several hours to several days before installation, most of the chemical emissions can be avoided. In glue-down installations, seek out low-VOC adhesives rated at less than 50 grams of VOC content per liter of adhesive.
Carpeting Alternatives for Sensitive Individuals.
Once installed, carpets can act as reservoirs for contaminants filtered from the air or tracked in on shoes, including hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other particulates.
Also, in high-humidity conditions, dust mites, a powerful allergen, can thrive in carpets. In homes with small children, people with allergic conditions, or high-sensitivity individuals, consider alternatives to carpeting. Area rugs that can be washed periodically in 130°F water are an option.
Where carpeting is installed, health experts recommend frequent vacuuming with a HEPA-type vacuum or central vacuum with an outside exhaust, and periodic deep cleaning using a hot-water extraction system.
-- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
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