Books at Book Recommendations at InspectApedia
Building Inspection, Diagnosis, Repair Publications, Guides, Standards

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Best Practices in Residential Constructin - bookSome of these books, publications, or other ocuments are available free here at, such as our online septic systems text boo), and may be found online by using links we provide both in the article body text and in the References section and in the Books & Articlessection found at the end of each of our web page articles. .

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AIR CONDITIONING Inspection, Diagnosis, Air Conditioning Repair, Service Guide Books

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Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning, (Hardcover) Andrew D. Althouse, Carl H. Turnquist, Alfred F. Bracciano. About $60. new and available at $20. or less, used.
This is the first of two key books I used in classes attended to learn to install and service air conditioning equipment and to repair other refrigeration equipment.

It has been a standard, popular, clear, and thorough text since its original version in 1968, and here has been updated to current methods and materials for air conditioning inspection, diagnosis, and repair.

It's a big, thorough text useful for people who are serious about learning refrigeration and air conditioning systems. It may seem like overkill for a homeowner who wants to read up on his or her failing air conditioner, but since there are inexpensive used copies available from Amazon, I recommend this text for those readers too.

As a student's text the only criticism I have of this book is shared by some other reviewers, one of whom points out that the "test questions" at the end of chapters are not well coordinated with the actual text.

Quoting from Amazon: Textbook introducing the principles of air conditioning and refrigeration. Contains all of the most recent technology and EPA rules, with a standard coding scheme and maximized readability. Provides a base of information for students in this field and serves as a guide and reference for experienced technicians. Previous edition: c1996. DLC: Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery.

Principles of Refrigeration, (Hardcover) C. Thomas Olivo, 556 pages, Delmar Publishers; 3 Sub edition (March 1990) ISBN-10: 0827335571 ISBN-13: 978-0827335578, About $16.00 with less costly used version available.
This is the latest version of the second of two key books.

I used the 1979 version (still available used for about $4.00, but a bit obsolete) in classes attended to learn to install and service air conditioning equipment and to repair other refrigeration equipment.

My earlier version was put together by R. Warren Marsh and C. Thomas Olivo. This is a smaller and still more accessible book useful for diagnosing and repairing air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. It still provides basic theory but has nice sketches of individual components, what they do, and how they are replaced.

Quoting from Amazon: 556 pages, Delmar Publishers; 3 Sub edition (March 1990) ISBN-10: 0827335571 ISBN-13: 978-0827335578

Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems, (Hardcover) John Tomczyk, Esco Pr, September 1995, 291 pages. About $26.00 with less costly used version available. ISBN-10: 1930044062 ISBN-13: 978-1930044067
This book is less theory and more "how to fix-it" for air conditioning equipment.

Quoting from Amazon: Book Description: In today's ever changing technical world, service technicians must be highly skilled and have a solid understanding of refrigeration and air conditioning concepts. In addition, technicians must stay abreast of current industry development and improved techniques. Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems gives service technicians all the information needed to accurately diagnose and solve various systems problems.

The book details a variety of topics and troubleshooting procedures, including the following: Refrigerant pressures, states, and conditions, Subcooling and superheat, Compression systems, Metering devices, System charge, Diagnosing air conditioning systems, Systematic troubleshooting, Alternative refrigerants, Refrigerant blends an oils, Leak detection - evacuation and clean up procedures, Ozone depletion and global warming.

Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems discusses the changes affecting the refrigeration and air conditioning industries with an emphasis on the phaseout of CFC and HCFC refrigerants. Detailed sections on the most current leak detection and evacuation methods are included, as well as a section on alternative refrigerants and retrofit guidelines. The book also includes refrigerant changeover guidelines for the following conversions: R-12 to R-134a; R-12 to R-401A; R-12 to R-401B; R-502 to R-402A/R-408A; and R-502 to R-404A/R-507.

Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems is a 251 page soft cover that is written in easy to understand language and utilizes a large number of illustrations, tables, and photos. This book will provide service technicians with the practical, hands on information needed to successfully troubleshoot and service today's increasingly complex air conditioning and refrigeration systems.

From the Publisher: Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems helps students develop an ability to troubleshoot systems and solve problems in an efficient and timely manner. Although some textbooks address the subject, the coverage is more often cursory than detailed. Troubleshooting and Servicing Modern Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Systems is a textbook that thoroughly covers the subject in an easy to understand format and is an excellent addition to any curriculum

Principles of Refrigeration, 5th ed., (Hardcover), Roy J. Dossat & Thomas J. Horan, Lists for about $120. and available used at around $80.,
at the top of my technical content list for refrigeration references and text books, but also topping the price list, this is the authoritative text (cited in 10 other texts), an updated edition of the textbook for college level courses in refrigeration. The book provides a comprehensive, applications-oriented treatment of the mechanical refrigeration cycle and associated equipment.

Quoting from Amazon: In understanding the refrigeration cycle, Roy Dossat had 25 years in the field before teaching at the University of Houston. I was fortunate to attend the course taught by him in the 70's. It showed the man had much to offer even to the less experienced technician who needed to start on the basics. This book is easy to understand and a nice read for those who need answers to the complicated use of refrigerant and applications that drive the business. Refrigerant application is in constant change as environmental demands alter our lives. This book is a fundamental foundation and should be on the reference shelf of all engineers and technicians that want a straight foward understanding of the refrigeration cycle.

This is the best refrigeration book in the market, highly technical but still easy to understand, come with a very good explanation about food preservation methods and spoilage factors, the refrigeration aspect are deep, slightly conceptual but mostly practical, a most have for anyone that want to gain true understanding of refrigeration and thermodynamics.

A great reference book for all HVAC technicians,interested in the entery-level refrigeration repair area .Relates the basics,in full detail.An excellent review of refrigeration hardware and applied principles.Rather than guessing at the chapter questions ,it does have an answer-checker,to verify your homework.Although,I don't think you would want to carry this around,in your trunk.It's a good library study-guide and for trouble-shooting residential refrigetaion non-operations.

BUILDING SCIENCE - Building Construction Science, Design, Repair, Service Guide Books

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Understanding Ventilation, John Bower, Healthy House Institute 1995, ISBN 0-9637156-5-8, John Bowers, Healthy House Institute 1995. Quoting from one of several glowing reviews:

Proper housing ventilation, the kind that helps maintain healthyindoor air quality (IAQ)is a poorly understood subject. John Bower's book is an excellent "teacher" for the layperson as well as a "continuing educational seminar" for the industry insider. It breaks down the concept of proper ventilation in an easy-to-read format while it presents a new paradign for industry workers familiar with installing ductwork but who may not have time to keep current with trade magazines.

This book illuminates aspects of proper ventilation that are often overlooked such as how pollutants get into your house in the first place and provides workable guidlines to achieve solutions. It would be ridiculous to assume that any book would have the concrete answers to every possible IAQ problem, but where this book succeeds is in its ability to involove the reader in the solution to his or her own home's individual IAQ problems.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM BOOKS - Electrical Inspection, Diagnosis, Wiring Books We Recommend

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Wiring a House (For Pros by Pros), (Paperback) by Rex Cauldwell (Author). "NOT KNOWING the basics of electricity can get you into a lot of trouble-painful trouble..." (more) Key Phrases: cutoff panel, acorn clamp, insulated hot wires, Ohm's Law, Ideal Industries, The Art of Grounding and more. Nice reviews:

From Library Journal: Electricity is one of the least understood yet most important aspects of do-it-yourself building and renovation. Used safely, it allows us to enjoy a life of convenience, but when its basic rules are violated it can destroy one's home. A master electrician, building inspector, and licensed general contractor, Cauldwell shows how to properly use electricity in this revision of his 1996 text. Starting with electricity's basics, he then explains tools of all types, shows how and where electricity enters the house, and explains grounding (which is vital for safety).

Proceeding through the house, Cauldwell demonstrates how to wire both new construction and renovations and to install receptacles, switches, fixtures, and wired-in appliances. Important safety information is provided, including ground-fault circuit interrupters, lightning, and surge protection.

Finally, Cauldwell gives instructions for wiring "Above Code," his system of wiring that exceeds the minimum standards required by the electrical code and results in a safer, higher-quality installation. This title does an outstanding job of explaining an area of perennial confusion for do-it-yourselfers. Recommended for every collection. Copyright 2002 Reed Business Information, Inc.

Midwest Book Review: Master electrician Cauldwell has been wiring houses for almost thirty years and is in a fine position to explain the job. From avoiding the wrong materials to designing new wiring and working with old, Wiring a House focuses on safety and long-term durability alike, telling how to work with both new and old construction. An invaluable guide. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

Safe Home Wiring Projects, (Paperback) by Rex Cauldwell (Author). "When working with electricity, knowledge is the key to safety-ignorance literally hurts." The primary intimidating factor in working with electricity (and the thing that frightens many people away from even trying to do home wiring projects) is, obviously, the fact that it can be dangerous--even deadly--if not done properly and if appropriate safety precautions are not taken.

Rex Cauldwell has put together one of the most comprehensive, basic, step-by-step guides on the subject. It is clearly organized, well referenced, and includes everything you need to know to do home wiring projects safely and correctly the first time.

From Library Journal Electricity is a mysterious (and somewhat scary) subject for most people, even those who complete many of their own repairs. Not so for Cauldwell, a master electrician with over 20 years' experience, who shows how the average do-it-yourselfer can safely perform many tasks usually reserved for electricians.

He starts by explaining basic electrical principles and shows which tools to use. A section on inspecting your home's electrical system is particularly helpful, describing various hazards and pitfalls. Other sections cover repairing wiring switches and receptacles and installing light fixtures, ceiling and bathroom fans, and home entertainment systems.

Profusely illustrated, safety-oriented, and including sections on troubleshooting and a glossary, this is an excellent title for beginners. Recommended for all public libraries.?Jonathan N. Hershey, Akron-Summit Cty. P.L., Ohio Copyright 1997 Reed Business Information, Inc.

PLUMBING SYSTEM BOOKS - Inspection, Diagnosis, Plumbing Repair Books We Recommend

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Plumbing (For Pros by Pros), (Paperback) by Rex Cauldwell (Author). (256 pages)

Book Description (from Amazon): The author of Wiring a House and Inspecting a House covers waterfront in Plumbing, from the submersible pump in the bottom of the well to the utility sink in the laundry room, to step-by-step installation procedures for all plumbing fixtures, hardware, and appliances in the home. Along the way, the author makes carefully planned detours into the non-standard circumstances a builder or remodeler is likely to encounter in a remodel.

Throughout the book, process and technique are linked through special color-coded "finding guides" to the related reference information in the back. This reference section includes a concise index of the plumbing code, photos and descriptions of every type of pipe, every form of fitting, and all the unique and special tools that apply to plumbing, as well as sizing charts, expansion tables and other relevant technical data.

About the Author: A third generation tradesperson, Cauldwell is both a master electrician and master plumber. Cauldwell has an A.A.S. degree in Electronic Engineering and gives seminars nationwide. He is a consultant and Q & A reference, an expert witness and his books Wiring A House and Inspecting a House are popular industry standards.

SEPTIC BOOKS - Septic System Design, Septic Repair, Septic Tank Pumping & Service Guide Books

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Here is our recommended list of books, magazines, and other publications for septic system maintenance, septic system inspection, septic system design, and septic system repair procedures. We provide references for both conventional septic systems (septic tanks and drainfield, leaching bed, or soakaway systems) and "how to" books and references for alternative septic system designs, greywater systems, rainwater collection, and water conservation systems.

We include reviews and comments on each septic system book, followed by lists of government and U.S. state septic system regulations and septic system design guides. Some of these documents are available free (such as our online septic systems text book), and may be found online by using links we provide.

These books can be ordered at Amazon Books - use the links shown at each book or use the Amazon Search Box at left on this page. Buying a book through these links helps support our free public information website.

Septic System Owner's Manual, Lloyd Kahn, Blair Allen, Julie Jones, Shelter Publications, 2000 $14.95 U.S. - easy to understand, well illustrated, one of the best practical references around on septic design basics including some advanced systems; a little short on safety and maintenance.

Both new and used (low priceO copies are available, and "watch this space" as I think the authors are working on an updated edition--DF. Quoting from one of several Amazon reviews:

The basics of septic systems, from underground systems and failures to what the owner can do to promote and maintain a healthy system, is revealed in an excellent guide essential for any who reside on a septic system. Rural residents receive a primer on not only the basics; but how to conduct period inspections and what to do when things go wrong. History also figures into the fine coverage.

Septic book by MinnisOnsite Wastewater Treatment Systems, Bennette D. Burks, Mary Margaret Minnis, Hogarth House 1994 - one of the best septic system books around, suffering a bit from small fonts and a weak index. (DF volunteers to serve as indexer if Burks/Minnis re-publish this very useful volume.)

While it contains some material more technical than needed by homeowners, Burks/Minnis book on onsite wastewatre treatment systems a very useful reference for both property owners and septic system designers. We refer to it often.

While Minnis says the best place to buty this book is at Amazon (our link at left), you can also see this book at Minnis' website at http://web page

Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies, Anish R. Jantrania, Mark A. Gross. Anish Jantrania, Ph.D., P.E., M.B.A., is a Consulting Engineer, in Mechanicsville VA, 804-550-0389 (2006), Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies.

Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF.

Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook, R. Dodge Woodson. This book is in the upper price range, but is worth the cost for serious septic installers and designers. Quoting Amazon:

Each year, thousands upon thousands of Americans install water wells and septic systems on their properties. But with a maze of codes governing their use along with a host of design requirements that ensure their functionality where can someone turn for comprehensive, one-stop guidance? Enter the Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook from McGraw-Hill.

Written in language any property owner can understand yet detailed enough for professionals and technical students this easy-to-use volume delivers the latest techniques and code requirements for designing, building, rehabilitating, and maintaining private water wells and septic systems. Bolstered by a wealth of informative charts, tables, and illustrations, this book delivers:

* Current construction, maintenance, and repair methods
* New International Private Sewage Disposal Code
* Up-to-date standards from the American Water Works Association
* And much, much more!

So, no matter if you're a plumber, a driller, or a utility company professional, Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook is the one resource you need to ensure your next job's success!

Builder's Guide to Wells and Septic Systems, Woodson, R. Dodge: $ 24.95; MCGRAW HILL B; TP; Quoting from Amazon's description:

For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. This comprehensive guide filled with case studies can prevent that. Master plumber R. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction.

Chapters cover virtually every aspect of wells and septic systems, including on-site evaluations; site limitations; bidding; soil studies, septic designs, and code-related issues; drilled and dug wells, gravel and pipe, chamber-type, and gravity septic systems; pump stations; common problems with well installation; and remedies for poor septic situations. Woodson also discusses ways to increase profits by avoiding cost overruns.

Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan, $ 18.95; Tab Books 1992. I have found this text very useful for conventional well and septic systems design and maintenance --DF. Quoting an Amazon description:

Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements.

He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites.

Onsite Wastewater Disposal, R. J. Perkins; Quoting from Amazon:

This practical book, co-published with the National Environmental Health Association, describes the step-by-step procedures needed to avoid common pitfalls in septic system technology. Valuable in matching the septic system to the site-specific conditions, this useful book will help you install a reliable system in both suitable and difficult environments.

Septic tank installers, planners, state and local regulators, civil and sanitary engineers, consulting engineers, architects, homeowners, academics, and land developers will find this publication valuable.

More septic system books available online, these volumes are older or for other reasons described below, perhaps a bit less useful or less current.

Design manual: Onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems, Richard J Otis, published by the US EPA. Although it's more than 20 years old, this book remains a useful reference for septic system designers. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Program Operations; Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory; (1980)

Country Plumbing: Living with a Septic System, Hartigan, Gerry: $ 9.95; ALAN C HOOD & TP; Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:

This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. But it was written in the early 1980s. A lot has changed since then. In particular, the book doesn't cover any of the newer systems that are used more and more nowadays in some parts of the country -- sand mounds, aeration systems, lagoons, etc.

Grass is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank, Bombeck, Erma: $ 5.99; FAWCETT; MM;

This septic system classic whose title helps avoid intimidating readers new to septic systems, is available new or used at very low prices. It's more entertainment than a serious "how to" book on septic systems design, maintenance, or repair. Not recommended -- DF.

Other Online, Free, and Otherwise Excellent Courses, Guides, & References on Septic System Maintenance, Repair, Design, & Installation Alernatives

GREYWATER SYSTEM Design Manuals and Books - methods for water recycling, water conservation, rainwater collection, and septic field load Reduction - green building construction

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The New Create an Oasis With Greywater, Art Ludwig; Buy New: $14.25. Ludwig is one of the most thoughtful, prolific, and sometimes controlversial writers on gray water systems and alternative designs.

We recommend his book as clear, easy-to-understand writing aimed at property owners who want or need to consider a graywater installation to conserve water, recycle water, reduce water use, or to reduce the load on their septic system. This is the latest edition of this Art Ludwig's greywater design book classic.

Builder's Greywater Guide, Art Ludwig; Buy New: $10.17. Installation of Greywater Systems in New Construction & Remodeling; A Supplement to the Book "Create an Oasis With Greywater" (Paperback). Quoting a review from Amazon:

I recommend that you get the 3 companion books on greywater treatment "Create an Oasis", "Branched Drain Greywater Systems" and "Builder's Greywater Guide". The information in these volumes will keep most of us far more informed than most of the regulators, the system builders, and the experts-in-theory. These volumes are real-world gems.

Art Ludwig has cut to the core of wastewater issues. He's obviously done all of his homework, mulled-over the variables, and come up with a common sense, economically reasonable, environmentally responsible approach to wastewater. I expect to save money that I would have spent on a post-septic tank, aerobic unit that would seemingly have been ecologically responsible; but because of the technological overkill, ultimately that system would have defeated my altruistic environmental concerns.

... These books talk the talk and walk the walk better than anything else that I've seen. Buy a set for yourself, a set for your neighbors, and a set for the regulators.

Branched Drain Greywater Systems [superseded by "The New Create an Oasis with Greywater"], Art Ludwig. If you already have this book but are in the process of installing new gray water systems you should take a look at the newer edition listed first above in this section of our grewater book recommendations.

You may prefer the newest edition, but there is great information in this older version, perhaps all you need, and these copies are sold at very low prices - an aid to people of limited means.

Create an Oasis With Greywater: Your Complete Guide to Choosing, Building and Using Greywater Systems , Art Ludwig, [superseded by new edition] (Paperback)

You may prefer the newest edition, but as I said above, there is great information in this older version, perhaps all you need, and these copies are sold at very low prices - an aid to people of limited means.

Rainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply: Design, Construction and Implementation, Erik Nissen-Petersen, John Gould. (Mr. Ludwig, while much appreciated, is not the only author providing really useful design guides for graywater systems.--DF) Quoting from an Amazon review:

This book reviews the art of roof and ground catchment systems for rainwater. The water collected can be used for household or other purposes. The designs are aimed for individuals with limited access to electricity and/or civic water utilities. The text includes drawings, photographs and step-by-step instructions.

One might say the book is really written for the 'aid worker' since it also considers ethnic and gender issues that would be 'obvious' to the future owners of the the systems.

Guidelines on rainwater catchment systems for Hawaii, (CTAHR resource management publication) Patricia S. H Macomber.

This more technical document may be especially helpful for rainwater collection and recycling systems for climates where there is heavy rainfall such as demonstrated for Hawaii.

Design for Water: Rainwater Harvesting, Stormwater Catchment, and Alternate Water Reuse, Heather Kinkade-Levario. Quoting from Amazon's review: Design for Water is an accessible and clearly written guide to alternate water collection, with a focus on rainwater harvesting in the urban environment. The book:

Outlines the process of water collection from multiple sources-landscape, residential, commercial, industrial, school, park, and municipal systems Provides numerous case studies, Details the assembly and actual application of equipment, Includes specific details, schematics, and references.

All aspects of rainwater harvesting are outlined, including passive and active system setup, storage, storm water reuse, distribution, purification, analysis, and filtration. There is even a section on rainwater harvesting for wildlife.

In addition to rainwater, there are several affordable and accessible alternate sources, including cooling tower bleed-off water, air conditioning condensate, gray water, and fog collection. Design for Water is geared to providing those making development decisions and guidelines with the information they need to set up passive harvesting techniques. The book will especially appeal to engineers, landscape architects, municipal decision-makers, developers, and landowners.

Heather Kinkade-Levario is a land-use planner in Arizona and the author of the award-winning Forgotten Rain. She is president of Forgotten Rain L.L.C., a rainwater harvesting and stormwater reuse company.

The Toilet Papers: Designs to Recycle Human Waste and Water : Dry Toilets, Greywater Systems and Urban Sewage (Paperback) Sim Van Der Ryn, Wendell Berry; Quoting from an Amazon review:

With a title like "Toilet Papers" and from a distinguished eco-architect like Sim Van der Ryn, I needed no intro or review to buy a copy of this little, but well researched historical over-view of effluent mitigation and current eco-friendly toilet design.

This book is filled with good line drawings and photographs to depict everything from the historical perspective to the current dry toilets and their construction..

Rainwater Reservoirs Above Ground Structures for Roof Catchment: Most Common Rainwater Tanks in Comparison and Construction Manual, (Paperback) Rolf Hasse. [I have not reviewed this book

--DF, but it may be helpful to people constructing rainwater collection and reservoir systems for use in arid climates such as Mexico and the U.S. Southwest.

Technical papers and books on graywater systems and rainwater harvesting, available online:

Quality issues in harvested rainwater in arid and semi-arid Loess Plateau of northern China, K. Zhu, L. Zhang, W. Hart, M. Liu, H. Chen (out of print, find by search and deferred order). Amazon's description may be helpful:

Loess soils cover vast areas in the arid and semi-arid regions of northern China. Due to the lack of reliable surface water and ground-water, rainwater harvesting has played a prominent role in farmers' domestic usage and agricultural irrigation. An economical and valid type of water storage cistern with optimum design of components has been introduced to rural areas in the Loess Plateau. Different collection alternatives showed apparent variations in rainwater quality. by using different catchments, such as mortar roofs and cement-paved courtyards, compacted land or road surfaces, rainwater can be effectively collected for storage in cisterns. This study focused mainly on the quality of rainwater harvested from the different catchment systems and stored for different periods of time.

By analysis of the water samples stored in these cisterns, it was evident that rainwater quality could be improved significantly by self-purification during the storage.

With emphasis on rainwater quality affected by the different catchment systems, it was found that the measured inorganic compounds in the rainwater harvested from roof-yard catchment systems generally matched the WHO standards for drinking water, while the concentrations of some inorganic compounds in the rainwater collected from land and road surfaces appeared to be higher than the guideline values for drinking water, but generally not beyond the maximum permissible concentrations.

However, Fecal Coliform, which is an important bacteriological parameter for the three catchment systems, exceeded the limits of drinking water to a greater extend. Trace amounts of 55 organic pollutants were identified, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds and phthalate esters, etc. The analytical results indicated that roof-yard catchments that included the ''first flush'' usually provided safe drinking water with low organic contents, even for rainwater collected immediately after rainfall. In contrast, rainwater harvested from road surfaces had poor quality with respect to the organic constituents, regardless of stored time.

City eying home water-recycling technology; uses bath and washer water for irrigation., (ReWater Systems' equipment for greywater irrigation):

This is an article from: San Diego Business Journal [HTML] (Digital) available online in digital format. I have not (yet) reviewed it -- DF

Books About COMPOSTING TOILETS and ALTERNATIVE TOILET Design Manuals and Books - for water conservation, waterless toilet systems, and septic field load Reduction

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Composting Toilet System Book: A Practical Guide to Choosing, Planning and Maintaining Composting Toilet Systems , David Del Porto, Carol Steinfeld. Quoting an Amazon review:

Del Porto's book is the definitive composting toilet book at this time. There is nothing even close. His book covers all aspects of composting toilet systems and touches on graywater issues as well. He treats the composting toilet as part of the home system

. If a person is seriously interested in installing/having a composting toilet, this book can save him/her all of the mistakes people usually make. He even (carefully) explodes some of the advertising myths that the purveyors of composting toilets would have us believe.

The book covers ready-made systems as well as home built sytems. As trite as this sounds, the book truly is a must for someone considering intstalling composting toilet.

The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting Human Manure, 3rd Ed., Joseph C. Jenkins. Quoting part of an Amazon review:

The Humanure Handbook provides a wealth of thoroughly researched, hands-on experience and scientific data that demonstrates that after a natural process called "thermophilic" bacterial digestion, which occurs in a compost bin and where all pathogens are killed, excreta is then converted to a valuable nutrient for agriculture and thereby completing a full-circle life cycle.

Most importantly, effluent can then be kept out of our drinking water and not treated or referred to as an undesirable "waste product".

The information is conveyed in a humorous, folksy, down-to-earth easy to understand style along with drawings, charts, tables, photos and a wealth of resource info for further research. Jenkins' website has a forum for sharing more info, experiences and to answer any and all questions in the process of humanuring and constructed wetland gray water treatment.

Technical papers and online articles on composting or other alternative toilet designs, for download or purchase.

Thermal composting of faecal matter as treatment and possible disinfection method--laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies, B. Vinneras, A. Bjorklund, H. Jonsson. Quoting Amazon review:

When using toilets where the urine and faeces are collected separately for reuse as nutrients in agriculture, the collected matter should be disinfected. One way to do this is by thermal composting. Composting of different material mixes was investigated in a laboratory-scale experiment. This showed that the best mixture for dry thermal composting was a mix of faeces, food waste and amendment.

The urine was collected separately by use of urine-diverting toilets. A new method was developed to mathematically evaluate and estimate the safety margins of pathogen inactivation during thermal composting

The method is based upon a mathematical calculation of the number of times total inactivation (at least 12log"1"0 Reduction ) of the organisms is achieved. In a pilot-scale experiment, the disinfection of a faeces/food waste mix was performed with a calculated safety margin of more than 37 times the total die-off of Enteroviruses and some 550 times that of Ascaris. Thus, well functioning composting seems to be effective for disinfection of faecal matter.

To get a high temperature in all of the material, the reactor has to have sufficient insulation. A major disadvantage is the initial need for handling the raw un-disinfected material. The degradation of the organic matter in the compost was almost 75%, resulting in a small final volume that could safely be recycled.

Experiences with a composting toilet article from: Countryside & Small Stock Journal, available as HTML download. Quoting Amazon review:

This digital document is an article from Countryside & Small Stock Journal, published by Countryside Publications Ltd. on May 1, 1994. The length of the article is 1516 words. The page length shown above is based on a typical 300-word page. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Digital Locker immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.

From the supplier: A composting toilet is a good alternative to propane burning toilets, but it also has many problems. The worst part is emptying the waste and compost every 4-6 weeks. Other problems are the fan that must be kept running constantly and bug infestation.

Books about Septic System Design Manuals & Septic or Onsite Wastewater Disposal System Building Codes

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SEPTIC STANDARDS - Septic System Onsite Waste Disposal Standards

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